"Many chapters are in the book."
Translation:Multae lectiones in libro sunt.
here is an important advice for the makers of the duolinguo programm for latin .don t present alternative translations in the multiple-choice tests that violate the rules of the latin grammar.give them correct sentences that are wrong only as translations. the students have to read all the alternatives that the multiple choice test presents.don t feed them with bad examples (i hope that my bad english has not sucked the true meaning out of my words,which i have translated on my own :if the translation into my deficient english , leaves any questions open please find someone who knows the german language and consult the original) duolinguo sollte bei den multiple-choice fragen keine grammatisch falschen alternativen anbieten sondern nur grammatisch richtige sätze,die lediglich als übersetzungen falsch sind.da die schüler*innen alle alternativen zwischen denen sie bei der prüfung wählen sollen lesen werden besteht sonst die gefahr dass sie die grammatik des lateinischen falsch erlernen.
Mind: The idea that being exposed to wrong examples in training, will cause wrong learning, even when coupled with instructions for what is correct and what is incorrect, is part of one particular model of language learning. This model is not universally agreed upon. In fact, it has very little support today. Personally, I wouldn't worry about this.
For the makers: This lesson contains grammar instruction for accusative case. The new examples, however, contain dative case and some ablatives. Introducing one case at a time, the way it is done in the grammar section at the moment, is a better idea than flooding the learners with all the cases at the same time. If you absolutely want to include the dative and ablative examples at this point, it would help avoid confusion (>quitting) if you make a note about the particular examples you are using in the grammar section.
I would be able to use duo lingual without watching this youtube channel: https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1F845F5CED131FCB
@IngridMH, I just sent you about 30 lingots in gratitude for your proposal.
In Latin there are 3 genders, and 3 inclinations, singular and plural form, and I am struggling to memorize all these endings for the ACCUSATIVE, but sometimes I get Dative questions/examples, and these examples ruin everything in my memory.
Moreover, by this lesson we didn't get any tips-and-notes about Dative. And only by using the information on this forum, I realized that studere requires Dative. And before I was really confused: why after typing the correct accusative ending my answer wasn't accepted
I would like to echo the comments of some of those from above in that introducing so many cases simultaneously is indeed rather frustrating and disheartening especially considering how previous lessons seemed to be more of a buildung and lockstep experience. This section has become more of a random guessing game which is not helped by the program accepting "typos" which it really ought not to.
After a bit of searching, I found that liber is a second-declension noun but with a nominative singular -er ending (most second declension nouns end in -us). This tripped me up, I mistakenly thought it was third declension because the nominative didn't end in -us.
liber m (genitive librī); second declension 1. book 2. the inner bark of a tree
I guess because the nominative is lectio, not lectiona. Therefore: lectio>lectiones; femina>feminae.
This link is definitely a must-have: https://www.online-latin-dictionary.com/latin-dictionary-flexion.php?parola=lectio
Im almost 46 and I dont know either. Im gonna google them later, along with the word 'case/cases' b/c dative & accusative are referring to types of cases. Hopefully the info will be clear enough for me to understand. I suggest you either google it too or ask your language arts teacher. Good luck!
Thanks for the reply. I have done some languages which are inflected ie change endings with cases, so I was aware that the problem might be that they had introduced a case not covered so far in the tips but at this early stage I am irritated that they could not devise lessons and tips that match. I understand from later comments that the app does not include tips so it is worth doing it via Duolingo.com. I print off the tips so that I have a ready reference guide without going back each time I am stuck. Unfortunately I do not have a language teacher I started to do this because thanks to Covid I am stuck indoors having to shield arrrgh!
English does still have cases in the personal pronouns and in the relative/interrogative pronoun "who(m)" (though English Dative and Accusative have merged into an "Oblique" case).
For the purposes of this question, "Dative" is the form that the noun must be in when it is the complement of the Latin preposition in and that in means "inside" as opposed to "into." So, in "there are many lessons in(side) the book," "book" must go to the dative because the preposition in "governs the dative" (this is the technical term) when it has that meaning, and "governs the accusative" when it means "into" (for example, when I say "I go into the city" in urbem eō.)
"Lectio, Lectionis" can mean a lot of Things.
1. Auswahl (selection)
2. Lesen, Vorlesung, Lesung (Reading,)
3. Lektüre, Lesestoff (reading (material))
4. Lesefrüchte, Kommentare (Pl.) (Comments)
5. Schriftlesung, Heilige Schrift (KL) (the holy scriptures)
(My German dictionary)
and in a English-Latin Dictionary:
1. choosing, 2. lecture (Bee), 3. narrative, 4. perusal, 5. reading (aloud) .
But id does not mean "Chapter"
Good translation for "Chapter" are: "caput, capitis" (used in the classical time (and has multible other meanings)) and "capitulum, capituli" use in the after classical era.
I had to look it up just now, because "multae" threw me off too, and it was surprisingly difficult to track down, but, yes, lectio is feminine, according to cultus dot hk. It's also third declension. However, I find this extremely strange, because, as I understand it, only first and fifth declension nouns can even be feminine. So... I don't really know what to make of that.
However, I can at least shed some light on the libro thing. It is ablative. When a location is being ascribed, the locative case is used only if the location is a city, a town, a small island, home, or a small handful of other predefined nouns. For any other location, the ablative is used if the location is static, and the accusative is used if movement is to be expressed to the location from another location.
The ablative case basically means "from". So, conceptually, and more literally, this sentence is like saying, "From in the book, there are many chapters." Or the sentence, "Discipuli in ludo discunt" means something more like, "From in school, the students learn," or "The students learn from in school." We can actually do this in English to varying degrees of acceptability depending on where you live. However, one example that I find to be pretty universally acceptable (and even outright mandatory) is a sentence like, "He works from home." It's the same sort of idea.
For reference, every declension has feminine nouns; the first declension may have a single neuter noun and a few masculine nouns (such as agrīcola "farmer" or pīrāta "pirate"), while the fifth declension has no neuters and generally only diēs "day" and compounds like merīdiēs "midday" as masculine.
As for the other three declensions, the second declension has many names of trees like pīrus "pear-tree" and fāgus "beech" which are feminine, and a vast number of masculine and neuter nouns like arcus "bow; arch" and scutum "shield"; the third declension has about an even mix of everything, like masculine pons "bridge," feminine veritas "truth," and neuter mare "sea". Finally, fourth declension nouns are mostly masculine and neuter (for example, portus "port" and cornu "horn"), but two very important feminine nouns: domus "house" and manus "hand."
I am struggling with the declensions. The lessions would benefit from sections covering the declensions. So that i could get my head around each. This was how i was taught at school and at the time was far less confusing than being thrown into the language without guidance.
I don't know if you're still paying attention to this, but I recently overcame this issue. In my situation, I wasn't seeing any of the instructional material because I was using only the mobile app. Once I got on a browser, even on my phone, and went to duolingo.com, I discovered that clicking on a section to take the quiz offers me a "Tips" option that I can use to read the material. I do not know why this is not available from the app, but it's discovery has greatly improved my willingness to continue.
I agree! I came to this comments page hoping to find out why in this sentence the word is 'libro' and not 'librum'. After reading the comments and all these terms I dont know, I'm even more confused! I'll end up spending probably an hour tomorrow trying to find out via Google what these unfamiliar grammar terms mean. Sigh.