Yeah, those pesky differences in language evolution. :-P It's interesting to compare and contrast with the other major Romance languages.
|ego sum||yo soy||je suis||io sono||eu sunt/sînt|
|tū es||tú eres||tu es||tu sei||tu eşti|
|is est||él es||il est||lui è||el este/e|
|nōs sumus||nosotros somos||nous sommes||noi siamo||noi suntem|
|vōs éstis||vosotros sois||vous êtes||voi siete||voi sunteţi|
|iī sunt||ellos son||ils sont||loro sono||ei sunt/sînt|
I'm sure that knowing all of the Latin conjugations, not just the present indicative, could help shed a light on where the differences came from.
I couldn't do it without first being forced to memorize conjugations and declensions at school:) It does sound a lot like "es" on the grainy recording, so you really have to know your conjugation endings. Maybe it's just me, but it seems kind of impossible to learn Latin solely by immersion as Duolingo does it. Happy Latin learning anyway!
You're right...that totally makes sense! Maybe "immersion" isn't quite the right word for it, I just meant it would be really hard to learn Latin just on Duolingo without first knowing your forms - I mean how is a beginner going to know that there are such things as declensions and cases which decide what part of speech a word is, as opposed to English where the noun and direct object may only be distinguished by their order in the sentence? But what you said makes total sense - you're saying Duolingo isn't even as much as the immersion method. But now I'm curious...exactly what would you call the method that Duolingo uses?
Native speakers of Latin would pick up the forms the same way you picked up the grammar of your native language.
As an example: I have a toddler, so he is learning how to speak. He knows how to form plurals (add an -s), gerunds (-ing), and the simple past (-ed). No one told him that, but he is utterly immersed in the language and so he has figured it out.
The same would be true in Latin. And it is not the only language with heavy inflection. German declines its articles (as do other languages); ancient Greek had four cases and even an article to decline; etc.
English relies heavily on word order (syntax), but many other languages rely on morphology and inflection (word form) to convey meaning. One isn't better; it's just a different method.
As to what I would call Duolingo's method? Repetition, I suppose? It's limited in its use, but fun. I think it's great for vocabulary and learning some phrases, and to motivate you to explore other ways to teach yourself. That's perhaps its best feature.
That makes sense - I meant "an English beginner to Latin on Duolingo" as opposed to a native Latin speaker learning the language as a child, but what you said is also true (the amount of times I've done a poor job of explaining myself on this chat is remarkable:). I definitely agree with you that Duolingo is limited in its usefulness for learning Latin, for aforementioned reasons. Thank you for your input, it renders studying Latin over the summer a little more agreeable:). Thanks again!
I can't reply to your recent comment, so I'll reply here.
So glad you are looking at Latin this summer. I teach high school Latin so feel free to reach out (email@example.com) if you have any questions.
Also feel free to use any of the resources I share with my students at: https://tinyurl.com/omnes-opes
Thank you! This will be great because I took Wheelock's the year before last, so I'll be familiar with the concepts.
It should be ‘Quis est Stephānus?’ Due to the missing macron, the audio incorrectly says Stéfanus, tough sorry [bloody autocorrect] syllables and stress on the antepenultimate syllable. [Thanks, mosfet07, for the correction.] Stress on the antepenultimate syllable is correct, as the name is all short syllables. However: Further, the audio incorrectly pronounces the aspirated digraph ph as /f/, when it should be /pʰ/. I've flagged the audio as incorrect (again).
So you want to say that all these sources are wrong?
I stand corrected with regards to vowel length.
Wiktionary, your link: Pronunciation Edit (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈste.pʰa.nus/, [ˈstɛ.pʰa.nʊs]
Lewis and Short, Gaffiot: no information on pronunciation of ph.
How on earth I misread ă for ā, I don't know; I might have not been wearing my glasses. Any way, thanks for the correction! I have updated my answer.
Well, not knowing exactly how the Romans pronounced that sound, we cannot judge what pronunciation is correct (if the word 'correct' is even acceptable for Latin pronunciation which doesn't have a unified standard).
(Just my speculations ahead)
Given that the name is Greek and the Greeks used to pronounce it with aspiration (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phi), we could assume that the Roman nobility, familiar with the Greek language of that period, could pronounce it similarly. But what for ordinary citizens?
Translation of Names
A little convention: we will not accept translations of names as alternatives in this course. Marcus's name is Marcus, not Mark, and Stephanus is not Stephen or Steven.
Indicative and interrogative are not words in the same category. Indicative means "the facts" and its opposite would be "subjunctive" which is used for concepts dealing with "wishes, potentials, etc."
I believe you mean declarative vs interrogative. In the declarative, many classical authors would indeed put the verb at the end, but it could go most places.
In interrogative sentences, you often find the verb first (in a "yes/no" question, like "habitasne in silva?") or either second or last in questions with "question words" like this example.