"Boston and New York are cities."
Translation:Bostonia et Novum Eboracum sunt urbes.
It's not random. First the course contributors need to receive the reports. Then they have to decide if the report is valid. Then they go into the database and make the change. But they have no control over when the server rolls out the changes. Assuming good timing, it takes a bare minimum of two weeks to process.
Yes. Novi Eboraci is the locative and Novum Eboracum is the nominative.
Here is a plain-English overview of what the cases are and how they work:
Latin cases, in English
Adjectives must agree in gender, number, and case with the nouns they modify, but they have their own declensions. Sometimes you get lucky and the adjective just happens to follow the same declension as the noun, but that is not a guarantee.
Latin syntax is somewhat flexible, but it is typically SOV (Subject Object Verb).
However, "esse (to be)" is a verb of state, not of action, and therefore takes a subject complement rather than a direct object. It is not uncommon in this case to have SVC (Subject Verb Complement) to better differentiate the subject from the complement, since they're all in the nominative case.