Is there some standard that makes obvious that New York should be translated as it is currently, Eboracum Novum?
If a Roman heard the English name they might call it something like Nuiorcum or Iorcum Novum or any other number of phonetic spellings or translations. They might even spell it New York without case variation, as happened in some borrowings in the Classical era.
I investigated. Eboracum is the name the city of York was founded with by the romans. It is derived from eburakon, an ancient celtic language word which means "The place of yew trees" or it can also mean the place that was founded by a person whose name is Eburos, since the suffix -akon means "belonging to" or "place of"