Translation:Teacher Corinna reads Latin literature.
This is awkward English. Better: "The teacher Corinna reads Latin literature."
"Sister Corinna" is good English. "Teacher Corinna" isn't that good.
In the English speaking world we don't use "teacher" as an honorific. We do use "Professor," but then it would be followed by Corinna's surname.
Not all of us English speakers are so formal. There are times when Professor Corinna would be acceptable.