"Marcus, where do your daughters sleep?"
Translation:Marce, ubi dormiunt filiae tuae?
Two problems here.
(1). You're thinking of the possessive ("your daughters") as being like "daughters OF YOU."
Maybe because we would correctly say "Marcus' daughters" / "daughters of Marcus" as fīliae Marcī , where the form Marcī is the genitive singular (possessive) of a 2nd decl. noun; you're 'harmonizing' the word YOUR as if it were also a 2nd decl. word. Here, it's not.
Latin doesn't say "daughters of you" (or "of me"), but instead uses a possessive adjective:
tuus, tua, tuum = belonging to you (when YOU = the singular, tu).
Just as we would say "happy daughters" (fīliae laetae ) or "Roman daughters" (fīliae Rōmānae ), with the ae, feminine plural nominative ending on the adjective, that describes the _fīliae (fem, nom, pl);
so we say fīliae tuae , for "your daughters," when THEY are the subject of the sentence ("Where do THEY sleep?").
(2) You're missing the point that names like Marcus ( = 2nd decl. masc. nomin. sing., ending in -us) have a special form used when the person is directly addressed :
the -us ending changes to -e.
It's called a vocative. Most vocatives are identical to the nominative form (as for pater : Father is angry = Pater est īrātus . Come on, father! = Age, pater ! ), but NOT the -us 2nd decl. masculine singulars:
HE, Marcus (subject) = Marcus (Hey you), Marcus! (vocative) = Marce
A shift in word order (Ubi dormiunt, Marce, fīliae tuae?) was marked as incorrect. Duolingo also marks as incorrect: Ubi dormiunt fīliae tuae, Marce?
I believe it's common (if not regular) to "embed" the vocative in the remark issued to that person (rather than starting with it, or ending with it, as we do in English).
Well, here's an example from Caesar (De Bello Gallico 4. 25), where the Romans are enduring a difficult landing in Britain: Atque nostris militibus cunctantibus, maxime propter altitudinem maris, qui decimae legionis aquilam ferebat, obtestatus deos, ut ea res legioni feliciter eveniret, "Desilite," inquit, "commilitiones , nisi vultis aquilam hostibus prodere; ego certe meum rei publicae atque imperatori officium praestitero." Hoc cum voce magna dixisset, se ex navi proiecit ...
(And, while our soldiers were hesitating, especially because of the depth of the sea, he who was carrying the eagle of the tenth legion, having beseeched the gods that this event turn out well for the legion, said to them, "Jump down, fellow soldiers, unless you want to betray the eagle to the enemy; I certainly will have displayed my duty to the republic and to the commander." When he had said this in a loud voice, he threw himself from the ship...)
I would point to the "commilitiones" after the imperative "Desilite" and the "he said" (inquit), as an example of this 'vocative' embedding.
Anyone who teaches the Advanced Placement Latin curriculum will be familiar with this sentence.
If you click the light bulb icon before diving into the lessons, you'll see some information on the current grammar point they're focusing on.
There's also this that I wrote up:
(And could you please reply directly to me instead of making a new top-level comment? It will help keep the conversation together.)
Please refer to this thread:
It's not inconsistent. This is one of the rules of Latin grammar you need to learn.
Marcus is the nominative, used generally when he is the subject of the sentence and you're talking about him.
Ubi habitat Marcus? Where does Marcus live?
Marce is the vocative, used when you're addressing him directly.
Marce, ubi habitas? Marcus, where do you live?
It would be easier if there were explanations as to why sometimes it is Marcus and sometimes it's Marce... That is my one complaint, that the vocabulary file is only available on browser but not the app, and that there are no lessons about WHY things are right/wrong, basic rules and grammar.
The tips and notes are available to me on Android. If you use the web site, you will have access to the lesson notes where they go over case. If the lesson notes don't show up for you for some reason, there is a mirror site:
And here's something I typed up:
Here is a plain-English overview of what the cases are and how they work:
Latin cases, in English
Adjectives must agree in gender, number, and case with the nouns they modify, but they have their own declensions. Sometimes you get lucky and the adjective just happens to follow the same declension as the noun, but that is not a guarantee.
It is worth stressing that a name (of a person or place) is always cited in English in the nominative form.
Jon, you can think of the Latin changes to the name "Marcus" as being analogous to the changes we make in English with our pronouns, like HE (only for a subject of the verb: Lat. nomin.--Marcus goes to the store); HIM (only for an object: We come to Marcus (= Lat. ad Marcum venīmus, object of prep. ad, which takes accus.) or We love Marcus ( = Lat. Marcum amāmus, direct object of "we love," accus).
There's the "Hey, YOU!" form of his name, when he is directly spoken to: Hey, Marcus, where do your daughters sleep? This is the one represented by Marce , in Latin. We don't do anything like that in English (= changing the form of a word, when the person is addressed), but we do know what it is to talk to a person.
I don't know how much play Duolingo has given to other forms of "Marcus," such as: She is Marcus' sister (possessive: genitive: Ea est soror Marcī) or Tell Marcus the story (indirect object: dative: Nārrā Marcō fābulam!) or Cum Marcō iter facimus (ablative object of prep. cum: We are traveling with Marcus (or "we are making a journey" with him).
You haven't specified what you're finding inconsistent. I'm going to guess that it's noun cases, and why it's "Marce" here and not "Marcus"? We need the vocative here instead of the nominative because he's not the subject of the sentence. We're addressing him directly and "Marce" is technically outside of the sentence like an exclamation.
If you read the other comments on this page, you will see this explained further.
From now on, please:
- Read the comments first to see if your question has already been addressed.
- Ask very specific questions so we don't have to guess.
- Copy and paste or take a screenshot of your entire answer so we can see what you wrote and help you identify the real reason (or reasons) you were marked wrong.