"The teacher has students."
Translation:Magistra discipulas habet.
discipuli (nominative plural) would be used if the students were the ones 'doing' the verb (the ones 'having'). discipulos (accusative plural) would have to be used here since they are being 'had' by the teacher.
Magister discipulos habet. -> The teacher has students.
Magistrum discipuli habent. / Discipuli magistrum habent. -> The students have a teacher.
I gathered this from the forum. However, the website version works very well with my mobile, tablet and PC. I would recommend that you try it out. The system should have all your up to date work on it. In addition I print my tips out so that I have them handy for revising and also by me when I am working my way through. Even so unfortunately they do tend to give exercises on cases that have not yet been covered. I found all the tables of endings at the end of an old text bood. Good luck!
Yes (with exceptions),
-os is the second declension 'masculine' accusative plural (there are some second declension feminine nouns out there that will have this ending in the accusative plural).
-as is the first declension accusative plural (there are some masculine first declensions out there like nauta, which would use nautas in the accusative plural).
There are also second declensions that have the '-er' ending in the nominative. These are slightly different than the '-us' second declensions for a few of the cases.
First declension are mostly feminine nouns but a few masculine nouns exist (nauta, poeta). Second declension nouns with a nominative that end in '-us' are mostly masculine, some feminine (humus, domus when treated as a second declension). Second declension nouns with a nominative that ends in '-um' are neuter.
|Case||First||Second (-us)||Second (-um)|
I would say it would be useful to know by heart but I am sure most people end up memorizing them just from working with Latin over time. I remember coming back to Latin after a few years and remembering most of the endings (at least for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd declension).
When I was learning, I always had a handy photocopy of the table of declensions from the back of the textbook I was using however.
Because discipulus (a student) is a nominative singular form. This form does not match in number with 'students' and a nominative is used as the subject (the person or thing performing the verb).
Here we have to use an accusative plural form, discipulos (masculine [or mixed]) or discipulas (feminine). The accusative being used as who or what the action is being done to.
Latin has a case system where the words change based on there use in the sentence.
magister (masculine) and magistra (feminine) are nominative, the subject of the sentence. They are used when they define the person/thing doing an action or the person we are describing with a verb like esse.
- Magister/Magistra librum legit -> The teacher reads a book.
Magistrum (masculine) and magistram (feminine) are accusative, the direct object of the sentence. They are used to define the person/thing that an action is being done to.
- Liber magistrum/magistram legit -> The book reads the teacher. (nonsense I know, but an example).