I am from Taiwan and not familiar with Roman mythology. Is the goddess's name well known in Western countries? Do you think of the Goddess of wisdom when you see the name of Minerva McGonagall in Harry Potter? I have not heard of this goddess before, the name of Athena, on the other hand, is much more familiar to me.
The Romans, under the influence of the Greek culture, adapted their mythology to the point that they merged most of the Roman deities with the closest Greek equivalents. In this process, Minerva became Athena. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpretatio_graeca#Greco-Roman_equivalents
As for which one is more well known nowadays, I'd say Athena, but that's from the Polish standpoint, and it's not like those names are more just a metaphorical symbol of an idea devoid of any other meaning.