Translation:The fifth soldier does not have a clock.
Horologium would be a clock and not a watch. If like to know what kind of clock carried the soldiers? It could be a sand clock to know how much time to wait, for instance, before coordinating an attack. The sand watch can tell how much time has passed since you turn it, as to coordinate. A sun watch can tell, if not the hour, at least the moment of the day, you can know when the sun has not yet pass your own meridian (AM, ante meridian) or already passed, (PM), but is not precise if soldiers are in different regions of the imperium, midday occurs first in Greece, then in Rome and later in Hispania.
As for new York and California. Don't forget catholics used Latin for their mass as late as mud twentieth centuries, so the church had to use the names of places of the New World. I guess York is Eboraci because of England's York, and they added the new or Nova. I don't know if there's a new word for watch, or worst clock, or internet. But it could be possible. In Vatican city people speak mostly Italian among them, Latin is more only for liturgical puposed, and maybe old fashioned documents. But if course new York existed when Latin was still used for religion and science. And California was settled by catholic missionaries who did speak Latin and and an older version of modern Spanish. I'm not American, but it's OK for me that the course includes these places. It would be better to if they include cities from the empire and newer cities from everywhere and not just the united States. But remember this course is a beta version. If I'm to learn Toletum, id also would like to say Madrid, Sydney, Moscow or Buenos Aires. I'm not against including American cities, but there should be other modern cities, and, if course, those that existed in the empire and have a Latin name.
Yes; the first 3 that you mention were used as praenōmina (the 'first names' that were given to boys at birth, to be added to their family name or names); so far as I know, Octāvius is a nōmen . The man who became the emperor Augustus was born Cāius Octāvius ; when adopted by his great-uncle, Julius Caesar, he took his new "father's" name and added the adjectival form of his birth nōmen : he became Cāius Iūlius Caesar Octāviānus .
Another common praenōmen was Decimus , "tenth".
They used sundials a lot. (so, for hours, and imprecise measure of minutes)
I don't think they were interested in monitoring the time at night. What would be the use? They weren't time-obsessed like we are.
The candle clocks did exist:
But I really don't understand why they would use it, except monitoring a special process that have to take a determined amount of time, like a baker letting the dough rest. I have no idea of that, I only try to be a little deductive: I don't see why they would use, every night, a clock candle as we have night clocks on our bedside tables. They didn't to wake up on a fixed time, because no office hours or abusive bosses at this time!
Horologium, I believe it's everything that is used to measure time. Including observatory building.
The Solarium Augusti (also called Horologium Augusti) was an ancient Roman monument in the Campus Martius constructed during the reign of Augustus. It functioned as a giant solar marker, according to various interpretations serving either as a simple meridian line or as a sundial.
Globally horologium = sundial.
But as this course is modernized, it is taken for "clock", that didn't exist, of course, at this time.
Except clepsydra = "water" clock.
And hourglass = "sand" clock.
Note: Horologium gave:
- Horloge (French). (but meaning only a wall clock, not a watch)
- Orologio (Italian)
- Reloj (Spanish)
Of course, it comes from "hora". And, very likely, it was only a kind of sundial (including a building) in ancient Rome, and started to mean a clock, when the clock was invented.
Nobody knows when the first mechanical clock was invented, and who made it, as the tests are ambiguous using "horologium" for water clock, or for mechanical clock.
The Arabo-Andalusian Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi, invented a very ingenious water clock, but it's still far from the mechanical clock, it's more like a very advanced clepsydra.
So, they did use clepsydra, because their sundials were out of order.
3 hours long, only in winter. A 12 hour long night in summer, it's scarce.
It was conserved in old French, as in modern French, a guard or a nurse says "prendre le quart" to mean they will be night watching, or "to come on watch".
Quintus is a first name in old Rome. I think it can't be translated as the number fifth
According to my Latin teacher, there were a couple of naming conventions within Ancient Rome.
The first child (especially the first son) was given the same first name as their father (feminized in the case of daughters). They would give meaningful names to the next couple. But by the time, the fifth or sixth rolled around, they would just name them the nth: i.e. Quintus (fifth), Sextus (sixth)...
Quintus legitimately meant fifth, as in the fifth son or fifth child.
However, if you were the first born son of Quintus, you would also be named Quintus, thus it was simply a name that happened also to mean "fifth".
Quintus is so well known of a first name because of the Roman writer Quintus Horatius Flaccus.
Hence the confusion.
But I think, in general, scholars agree that quintus is an adjective of numerical placement first and a proper name second.
Again, that's according to my Latin teacher, whom I have no reason to doubt without some additional evidence.
Does anyone else have information about this?
Only males had first names (praenomina) like Quīntus "Fifth," Quārtus "Fourth", Sextus "Sixth," Marcus, Pūblius, Gaius, Decimus "Tenth". I gather that some of these names became popular in families and no longer had the 'number' reference.
Girls had the feminine form of their father's nomen (surname or family name): so, Gaius Iūlius Caesar had a daughter named Iūlia; Marcus Tullius Cicerō had a daughter named Tullia; a man called Antōnius (for his family name) had a daughter named Antōnia, and so forth.
(Girls 'technically' or officially were called Antōnia Maior and Antōnia Minor, if there were two sisters; or Antōnia Prīma / Secunda / Tertia etc. if there were more than two. Probably within the family circle and the friend circle, they had nicknames they were known by; that's not the kind of thing that necessarily comes down to us.)
First name = praenomen (gave French "prénom") = Christian name, as opposed with the family name.
It gave the French name Quentin, and the Italian Quintino.
From the diminutive Latin form " Quintinus"
Quintus (lat)/Quentin (fr)/Quintino (it) = the 5th.
Sixtus (lat) (Sometimes sextus) /Sixte (fr), Sixtine (fr, female name), Sistina (It) = the 6th.
Septimus (lat) = Septime (French, very rare), the 7th.
Octavus (lat): Octavio/Octavia(Spanish, Italian), Octave (French)/Octavie (female) = the 8th.
Nonus (lat) = the 9th. Names? Maybe "Nona" but I never heard.
Interestingly enough, nōna hōra , the 9th hour, is the ancestor of English "noon" (for midday). Nōna [hōra] means "the ninth hour after sunrise," and in the early Middle Ages referred to what we call 3 PM, when a particular service of prayers was said in the Christian Church. The prayer service was called nōnae (presumably with understood precēs , f. pl., "prayers" ?) or "nones."
Not sure when and where "noon" was transferred to the middle of the day. (The information above is from the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.)
Since I realized the absence of this question word in the English language in the Hungarian English course: Is there a question word in Latin that would be something like "Howmanieth"?
Q: Howmanieth soldier has a clock?
A: The fifth.
Or would it just be an unspectacular
Which soldier has a clock?
Quotus miles horologium habet? (??!)
I believe your Quotus question means "How many a soldier has a clock?" (in effect, 'the soldier who has a clock is one out of how many'?)
The "Which soldier?" question would be: Quī mīles hōrologium habet? , using the "interrogative adjective" (quī, quae, quod--identical to the relative pronoun).
Occasionally you do see the interrogative pronoun (quis? , "who") coupled with a noun: Quis mīles hōrologium habet?
If you think about it for a minute, the word quot, which means "how many," needs to accompany a plural noun; and all of the examples I can find in a quick perusal of the Oxford Latin Dictionary are, indeed, plural.
The line of Terence's, Quot hominēs, tot sententiae is a good illustration ("How[ever] many people [are present], [there are] so many opinions").
"How many soldiers" would be possible, though, using the plural: Quot mīlitēs hōrologium habent? , "How many SOLDIERS have a clock?"
True, I missed that.
But I don't really get how you intend "How many a soldier has a clock?" to differ from "How many soldiers have a clock?".
The closest I can get to a grammatical expression of the idea of howmanieth is:
"What is the ordinality of the soldier having a clock?"
or "...that has a clock?"
Yup, I think you've got it: the quotus, a, um question is asking for the ordinality; and can be used with a singular (since it exists in singular forms itself).
I don't intend anything here, except to try to get as close as I can to understanding the actual Latin examples we have.
Interestingly Dutch has a word for this: hoeveelste formed from 'how' (hoe) + 'many' (veel) (making hoeveel, 'how many') and -ste, '-th'.
It works a bit differently from other question words in that it is usually preceded by the definite article de:
De hoeveelste soldaat heeft een klok?
The how manyth soldier has a clock?
It's not really surprising that Dutch has a word for this, as it can form question words from almost all preposition.
Does Hungarian have a word for this? What is it?
It's my impression that the "counting" (or ordinal) adjectives often precede the noun:
sexta hōra est , "It's the 6th hour." sextā hōrā aderit , "He'll be here at the 6th hour."
Other adjectives that tend to precede the noun are quantity ones, like: Multī hominēs adsunt , "Many people are here," Omnēs puellae in hortō lūdunt , "All the girls are playing in the garden."
Admittedly, these are tendencies, not hard-and-fast "rules."