Translation:The tired women buy food in the forum.
Agreed. The final syllable of a word should never be stressed in Latin.
A good question. There are a few 1500+ year-old experts probably still lying around in their sepulchra who wrote on the Latin language. In addition, we have linguists who carefully analyse and compare between languages and study the development of languages over time. There’s also Latin poetry which helps us see which vowels in a particular word are long or short. You could try this pronunciation chart - http://www.orbilat.com/Languages/Latin/Grammar/Latin-Pronunciation-Syllable-Accent.html
Correct, and how Greek transliterated Latin (proving, for example, that the V is pronounced oo, and not v)
I think the natural assumption is that the prep. phrase modifies the verb ("... they buy food in the forum"). It's often said that prep. phrases don't, strictly speaking, modify nouns. So, "the women in the forum" should really be "the women who are in the forum, " using a relative clause: "Feminae quae in foro sunt cibum emunt," for "The women who are in the forum are buying food."
When I joined the latin course I was astonished about the pronunciation and I wrote something about ( maybe a conformation of the mouth far from ...). Then talking with my daughter who is an expert in languages I knew that there is a controversia on the matter. I still think that italians might have a shape of the mouth closer to that of their ancestors...