UnduTIFul IsN't EVen a WoRD
"impious" sounds like a better translation of the word to me. The word adds a bit of moral qualifier to whatever it modifies. Pious is good morals, impious is bad morals. So I read this sentence as saying the second half of something like: "Sometimes people have pious opinions, sometimes they have impious ones."
Impious is one of the possible translations.
But it's really more narrow than the Latin pius.
Pious is not "good moral", it's religious good moral. You can't say than someone who is atheistic and a good guy, is pious.
Other example. An Hindou, a Muslim, a Orthodox, or even someone from a crazy cult is pious and they could all follow a different religious moral, because they are pious regarding their religious duties, even an immoral religious moral.
Pius can be "pious" (= respectful, and fulfilling their duty toward their religion or god), but it can be toward the nation, the family, the children, the husband, the army, any kind of authority that could be respected and loved...
(Translating "pius" with "pious" is a bad habit in my opinion, as it removes all the other meanings from this word, especially when the 2 words are cognate.)
So, it's is not "a better translation", but another possible translation, but more narrow.
Yes. Basically, pius is at root “respectful towards authority”, mainly gods and parents and tradition, from which flows religious observance and other “moral” behaviour.
It seems to me that impious and/or irreverent, with their focus on religion, do not really fit the bill as a good translation of impius Many countries, east and west, do not now feature religion in any meaningful way, but they would recognise emotions and responses that relate to the Roman view of impius. These have more to do with appropriate behaviour, adhering to social norms, not going against the grain, conforming to ideals, being a fine upstanding citizen. An English person might say, "That's not the done thing, the right attitude" or even "That's not cricket". An American might, perhaps, say "That's un-American". I'm not sure: certain sections of American society imbue that description with treasonous thought or intent in order to force conformity or silence debate. But perhaps that is what Romans meant by the accusation of impiety? Any thoughts from across the pond?
It's an adverb, so it's "on its own" , doesn't change its ending (the adverbs that are formed from adjectives can be made into 'comparative' degree, with -ius ending, and 'superlative' degree, with -issimē ending), and ultimately modifies the verb. ("From time to time ... there are...").
Some of the non-adjective-derived adverbs, like saepe (often), can have comparative and superlative degrees: saepius, more often, rather often; saepissimē, very often, most often.
An adjective like "slow" (lentus, a, um) will make adverb "slowly" (lentē); all the "us, a, um" adjectives ( = adjs. of the 1st and 2nd declensions) can make an adverb by adding a long -ē to the adjective's base.
An adjective like brevis, brevis, breve (3rd decl.), "brief", makes an adverb by adding -iter to the adj. base: breviter, briefly.
(A 3rd decl. adj. with base ending in -nt, like prūdēns, prūdentis, prudent, wise, will simply add -er to the base: prūdenter, "wisely".)
A few common adverbs (I mentioned saepe; also diū, "for a long time," and prope, "near") are capable of making comparative and superlative adverbs: diūtius, "for a longer time," propius, "nearer."
But there are plenty of adverbs, often referring to time, like interdum, and crās (tomorrow), and nunc (now) and iam (already), that have no 'other forms' for comparative and superlative; they are not derived from adjectives.
(Though there's an adjective derived from crās: crāstinus, a, um, "belonging to tomorrow." Horace speaks of crāstina tempora, "times [that will exist] tomorrow" or something like that.)
@SimonRusht1 It’s formed from the preposition “inter” and the conjunction “dum” - something like “betweentimes”.
The word "sentence" does, especially as in "It is the sentence of this court that you be executed" (or whatever). (In other words, a court's judgment.)
The word "sentience," as in feeling as opposed to thought , is also ultimately related to "sentence," it seems: both are derived from the Latin present active participle sentiēns, sentientis (of the verb sentīre , to feel, notice, perceive), which means "feeling, perceiving".