Well, first of all, sorry for that delay. I really didn't have time to write anything to post here. Anyway, I've promised to do more astronomical stuff and here I am. But, since I lack the time, I kind of have something better for you guys. A link! This link is full of star names in both Latin and their Arabic counterpart from which they were adapted. They come also with the diacritics.
In addition to this link, I've remembered some few words which are used in astronomy, as well as in photography (specifically, panoramic photography). So, I'm going to list those here.
- Azimuth: السُّموت (as-sumút: the directions). the plural of as-samt السَّمت, meaning "the direction/angle", and it is still in use sometimes in some dialects of Arabic.
- Zenith: السَّمت (as-samt: the direction). Actually, the original word was سمت الرأس (samt al-ra's), meaning the angle of the head or the direction of the head; Meaning, the angle above the observer on Earth. However, Latin scribes in Europe misread the word and in time it was reduced to Zenith.
- Nadir: النّظير (an-naďír: the counterpart/opposite). This is the point which is the opposite to Zenith, and theoretically under the feet of the observer on Earth. Away from astronomy, this word can also mean "similar" or "match". The expression ليس له نظير (laysa lahu naďír) or لا نظير له (lá naďíra lah) means "he has no match".
Well, sorry for such a short post but I hope the link with the list of stars would be beneficial for you guys to add more to your vocabulary. I'm sure there are other "technical" words as well which are derived from Arabic but I didn't have the time to investigate further.
Have a nice day/evening!