Is "Don't approach the gods, Marcus!" wrong? It is not accepted. I'm not reporting it because I haven't learned the cases yet.
Forms with -a singular and -ae plural are mostly female; forms with -us sing and ī plural are mostly masculine. So deae sounds like (is also) a feminine plural form, but not here.
Dea has a weird dative and ablative form, so "Don't approach the goddesses, Marcus!" would be
Nōlī appropinquāre deābus, Mārce!
"Don't approach the gods, Marcus!" would be
Nōlī appropinquāre deīs, Mārce!
Apparently there are several different dative plurals for deus
Yes, that is what I suspected. The fact that the dative form is the same as indicative plural is what made me get the translation wrong in the beginning. But similar things occur in German, so luckily I didn't report it. Thanks Jim for your explanation.
Btw, I notice you mark the long vowels. Does that also help us to know where word stress falls?
Sometimes! Stress isn't too complicated:
- Stress the penultimate syllable, unless it is short, in which case
- Stress the "antepenult" (two before the last)
So if you see a long vowel in the antepenult then the stress normally goes there, eg:
The second example shows there can be a bit of complication - grā - ti - a is three syllables because i + a is not a dipthong. There is a bit more at Wikipedia.
EDITED: on reflection and re-reading guides, I don't think it helps much looking at the long vowel in the third; the point is whether there is a consonant cluster making a long syllable, or a long vowel making a long syllable, in the penult. See here for a nice visual version
I think I can get the dipthong vs. hiatus (well that's what it's called in Spanish) by ear, but as far as the long vowels, how do you recognize them if people don't mark them? Btw thanks for the article, but God is it complicated:
Classical Latin syllables and stress See also: Dreimorengesetz In Classical Latin, stress changed. It moved from the first syllable to one of the last three syllables, called the antepenult, the penult, and the ultima (short for antepaenultima 'before almost last', paenultima 'almost last', and ultima syllaba 'last syllable'). Its position is determined by the syllable weight of the penult. If the penult is heavy, it is accented; if the penult is light and there are more than two syllables, the antepenult is accented. In a few words originally accented on the penult, accent is on the ultima because the two last syllables have been contracted, or the last syllable has been lost.
@jairapetyan My shorter version above is easier! And doesn't miss much.
As for long vowels, you do get a sense of where they are over time, but it's much easier if they are marked with macrons. I do think the course editors need to revisit this, I know they are thinking about it.
On diphongs, there are five, these are pronounced out on this page
EDIT: I've taken a Wikibooks extract and tried to make it more readable here