"The meat is salty."
Translation:Caro est salsa.
This book gives a very good overview. It's well worth buying a copy but you may be able to find it free online in PDF format.
Note it orders the cases Nom, Voc, Acc, Gen, Dat, Abl which is how they're usually presented in Britain. The British order comes from the 19th century textbook "Kennedy's Latin Primer".
The Dickinson College charts present them in the order usually used in the US. If you're going to commit them to memory (and you really should) it's a good idea to decide in advance which order of cases would be better for you. There's another page here that presents them in the "British" order.
Edit: just noticed that last link has a spelling error: "genative". Elsewhere on this page it's correctly spelled as "genitive".
I would just add, "Bonam fortunam!" (Good luck--in the accusative case, because I'm wishing it upon you), and suggest that you also find a detailed beginning-language (college-level) textbook, like Wheelock for English speakers. A discussion of how to use the ablative case, for example, can go on for pages in a grammar book or textbook (since there are so many different types).
I actually teach from Ecce Romani (made by the Scottish Classics Group, I believe), and I enjoy using it with young people--eventually, it winds up providing them with quite a good foundation.
Accusative of exclamation. :-)
I would have suggested Allen and Greenough which you can definitely find freely online, but that could be a bit overwhelming at this stage. The Scottish Classics Group textbook is much more digestible and is certainly detailed enough to be going on with.
A weird thing, noticeable for French speakers.
There's no macron here, but căro is the flesh/meat, and cārō means expensive (from cārus).(And it's exactly the Spanish word caro = expensive)
căro gave chair (flesh) in French
cārō gave cher (expensive) in French.
And both "chair" and "cher" are homophones in French.
It's the second time I meet this phenomenon, the first time it was with lectus (with French homophones un lit-bed, il lit-read)
For the Spanish căro (flesh) -> carne (they took the ablative, or a word derived from the genitive), maybe because caro (flesh) and caro (expensive) were too close in the pronunciation?
I take it, though, that the different Latin vowels (long a in the word "expensive, dear"; short a in the word "meat") account for the two different outcomes in French (cher vs. chair), which presumably indicate a stage in language development when the sounds were pronounced differently.
The funny thing is the proximity of caro/caro in Latin, and the proximity of chair/cher (pronounced the same) in French.
They evolved from almost the same word (written the same), but not related in the meaning,
to give in French, homophones non related with the meaning.
And they went though different old French words (chier and char), so it's even more a weird coincidence. To be alike, to be not alike, and finally to be alike again.
That's the point.
And the Spanish coincidence is also funny.
I think "caro catulina" (meat dog) and "caro putida" (rotting meat) were Roman insults or swearing. For "caro putida" it was used by Cicero to talk about a writer (source: Gaffiot).
But "dog meat", ass it's listed in dictionaries, and I don't think they could eat dog meat. They weren't cynophage, but maybe some barbarians were?
Yes; it's important to avoid confusing salsa that's neuter plural (nomin/accus), and salsa that's feminine singular nominative. All the 1st/2nd declension adjectives have this potential 'confusion.' (Prandia sunt salsa, the lunches are salty, a neuter plural example; but Caro est salsa, the meat is salty, a femin. sing. example.)
Why is it salsus, -a, -um and not sālsus, -a, um. I am assuming it is because the genitive of sāl is salis, thus its root has a short -a-, but is this an instance of iambic shortening from the nominative, or is it rather the other way around: sal > sāl? If so, what kind of phenomenon are we dealing with?