"The doctor heals the sick man."
Translation:Medica aegrum sanat.
Also, if you leave vir in the nominative, it will be taken as modifying the medicus: it's not necessary, but it would have a meaning: "The man who's a doctor," or "The doctor fellow", is curing the sick man (since aegrum on its own, without noun virum, can mean "the sick man").
Yes, just as in English, "If someone is sick, the doctor heals him" means "the doctor heals that person."
The Latin adj. form aegrum has what's called the MASCULINE accus sing ending, but "masculine" is also used in the "generic" sense, in Latin.
I would say the same is true in English, with the generic use of "man" and "he" and so forth; but, though that was once true, it's been "problematized" by those folks who think that, if we just get "the right words," reality will be transformed! (or something)
Good point. E.g., magni, 'great men,' magnae, 'great women.' Happens in English: https://www.englishgrammar.org/adjectives-nouns-2/ Spanish: https://www.fluentu.com/blog/spanish/adjectives-as-nouns-spanish/ Many languages.
Yes, in effect: they are "substantivized adjectives," meaning they serve as nouns.
The forms (especially the nominatives and accusatives, which have 3 gendered endings, to differentiate masc and fem and neuter: e.g., accus plur aegrōs, aegrās, aegra for "sick men/women/things," respectively; and the genitive plural feminine aegrārum "of the sick women,") reveal enough gender clues on their own as not to need a noun like "men, women, things" accompanying them.
In the dative and ablative, and genitive plural of masculine or neuter, we tend to see the noun rēs, reī , f., "thing," added, to differentiate from "people":
dē miserīs , "about the wretched people" ; dē rēbus miserīs , "about the unfortunate matters."
The point here is that the gendered adjective makes it unnecessary to include a form of the word vir .
Since the -um ending on the adjective aegrum indicates "masculine, singular, accusative," we know that the direct object of the verb sanat , "heals," is a man.
If the adjective were aegram , we would know that the doctor is healing a sick woman .