It takes time. Some scholars say dont bother with verb conjugation. But, alas it it important. Why? Because it will help you learn to identify the different verb meanings associated with personal pronouns. Try 10 verbs a week. Build up your knowlege. As of today i am only 22% German. Still along way to go. If you dont learn verb conjugation you will find it harder in the long term. Good luck!
"Ich" is the subject. The subject is the one doing the action. "Buch" is the direct object.
Q - "I have" what?
A - "a book".
F - "Ich habe" was?
A - "ein Buch".
Part 2 - It is "ein" and not "einen" because "Buch" is a neuter noun. The only article that changes between nominative and accusative case are the masculine articles. Have a quick peek/read at this link. Start with that page, then, if you need/want to learn more, hover your mouse over "CASES" in the header and read through all the links. This whole website is a good learning resource to help you with your German (and in my case it helped with English too....I'd never heard of "cases" before).
If you need more help, just ask again.
With "Ein Buch habe ich" you emphasize that you have a book and not a newspaper, magazine, sandwich or anything else. By the way "ich" is only with a capital letter at the beginning of the sentence. The courtesy form of you, "Sie", is always capitalized. Odd when you're used to "I" always with a capital letter, and everyone and everything else with lowercase letters ;-)
Weird b thingy = ß ?
If that is what you're talking about, it is the equivalent to a double s = "ss".
To my knowledge, there is no "haße", but ich "hasse" = I hate.
I know that the verb hassen was changed by spelling reform, but I think it was still "ich hasse" before then (feel free to correct me native speakers).
I'm going to make assumptions here, and suggest you check out this site for some of Rammstein's play on words (if you haven't already):
This is correct. Just like English differentiates between "he/she has", but "I/etc. have", verb endings change in German, according to person. It pays off to learn these endings, they will appear in virtually every sentence. Just keep your eyes open, and try to continue in the tree :) You can also check the "Tips Notes" for each section (you might need to open Duolingo on your browser for that).
EDIT: Just saw that an explanation is already right at the top of this discussion. Please make sure to check previous posts before opening a new one, saves everyone's time :)
Because the plural is not Bucher but rather Bücher.
The vowel sound before the ch has changed.
The pronunciation of ch is different after back vowels (where ch is [x]) and after front vowels (where ch is [ç]).
u is a high back rounded vowel; ü is a high front rounded vowel.