Translation:The female teacher and the male teacher study.
Your sentence doesn't have the same meaning.
The female teacher + the male teacher study = 1 female + 1 male
The female and male teachers study = I don't know how many of each, can be 1+1, but your sentence seems to suggest there are several female teachers and/or several male teachers (or vice versa).
First and foremost, teacher and professor are not interchangeable synonyms.
Regarding the awkwardness of the sentence, it's probably because professoress is archaic, professional titles don't have sexual distinction in contemporary English.
This is just a sentence that doesn't translate at all well.
I typed in exactly what I heard three times, and it kept saying I was typing in English not Latin. Fourth time I missed the "a" in magister, and it marked me incorrect. So I type correctly, and it thinks it's English, then a small error cannot be recognized as the typo it is?