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  5. "The gladiator must fight."

"The gladiator must fight."

Translation:Gladiator pugnare debet.

September 11, 2019

17 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Richlogos

Thanks to studying Latin, you now know that «pugnare» and «pugnar» mean to fight or to engage in combat in Italian and Spanish respectively :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PERCE_NEIGE

In French, the Latin pugnax (warlike, belicose), made "pugnace" where the English "pugnacious" comes from. (= eager or quick to argue, quarrel, or fight) . Also "pugnacité" gave "pugnacity".

French répugner (to loathe somebody or something/to disgust something), also comes from pugnare.
It's an inner fight, figurative fight, against something or someone.

And "poing" (a fist) is also from pugnus (same meaning).

Pugilatus gave pugilat in French = a (very hard) fight.
(from ancient Greek πὐξ / púx or πυγμαχία / pugmakhía, in Latin pugilatus, from pugil a figher with fist (boxer), from pugnus, « a fist »)

Gave also inexpugnable (impregnable), (note: impregnable is from French "imprenable" that can't be taken (prendre -> prenable), not from "pugnus" or "pugnare".) Meaning you can't take this fortress, even if you fight.

French expugner (old) gave Expugn in English =to vainquish (old).


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/yasmine_y

In Italian "to fight" has a lot of translations actually, depending on the context. "Lottare", "combattere", "litigare"... The only word that derives from the Latin pugnare is "pugno" (fist). If you want to say "to hit with a fist" the expression is "prendere a pugni". There could be others but they're certainly less common.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LGFreeRock0828

If it helps anyone to remember the Latin meaning, or vice versa ...

In English, pugnacious and pugilism are related to Latin's pugno.

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pugno#Latin


https://www.dictionary.com/browse/pugnacious

Adjective:

inclined to quarrel or fight readily; quarrelsome; belligerent; combative

ORIGIN OF PUGNACIOUS

1635–45; pugnaci(ty) (< Latin pugnācitās combativeness, equivalent to pugnāci-, stem of pugnāx combative (akin to pugil; see pugilism) + -tās -ty2) + -ous


https://www.dictionary.com/browse/pugilism

Noun:

the art or practice of fighting with the fists; boxing

ORIGIN OF PUGILISM

1785–95; < Latin pugil boxer (akin to pugnus fist, pugnāre to fight; compare Greek pýx with the fist, pygmḗ boxing) + -ism


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DjaildoQuaresma

In Portuguese we have 'punho', which means 'fist'. Words that in Latin had 'gn' became 'nh' in Portuguese, so 'pugno' became 'punho'.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CeeCeeSong

No, in Spanish it is luchar. But I think the pug bulldog is derived from this word.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/tacotank10

How do the shades of meaning appear between should and must for the word debet? How can you tell which meaning is intended?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/fekundulo

gladiator debet pugnare is flagged wrong. Is it?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PERCE_NEIGE

No, report it.
Considering place order, what is the place order of the infinitive in Latin?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
Mod
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  • 2601

Consider how the future tense in the Romance languages came to be. For example: "tu aimeras". It came from "amare habes". The infinitive comes first in Latin.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
Mod
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  • 2601

It was most commonly "pugnare debet". This is how the future tense suffix in the Romance languages developed.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Stanley759797

In my understanding there is a difference between 'should' and 'must' - so how is it possible, that 'debet' is in other sentences translated as 'should' and here we suddenly have it as 'must'? Has anyone a hint for me? Thanks in advance.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/virpacalis

must ≠ ought


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Mareile2

Would "gladiatorem pugnare oportet" be an acceptable solution? Thanks.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
Mod
Plus
  • 2601

No. "Gladiatorem" is the accusative (direct object) and we need the nominative (subject) "gladiator".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Mareile2

I was thinking of the accusativus cum infinitivo after oportet. Is that not an option in this case?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
Mod
Plus
  • 2601

No. The gladiator is the subject of the sentence. He is the one who must fight. Therefore it needs to be in the nominative. Regardless what the verb or the rest of the sentence is doing, the subject must be in the nominative.

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