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Adverbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Adverbs are used to clarify/modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or an entire sentence.
The position of an adverb varies, it depends on the adverb and how the adverb is used in a sentence.
The adverb can appear : (1) before, (2) after, (3) before or after , and (4) before and after the word it clarifies.
Examples :

(1) before the word it modifies:
Saya baru bangun. = I just woke up.
Saya masih di rumah. = I am still at home.
Saya sudah makan. = I have already eaten.
Saya belum mandi. = I have not yet taken a shower.

(2) after the word it modifies:
Kamu cantik sekali. = You are very pretty.
Kami duduk-duduk saja menunggu panggilan. = We just sit around waiting for a call.
Kelakuannya jelek benar. = His behaviour is truly bad.

(3) before or after the word it modifies:
Mobil itu amat mahal. = That car is very expensive.
Mobil itu mahal amat. = That car is very expensive.
Tadi pagi Tini segera pergi ke sekolah. = This morning Tini immediately went to school.
Setelah sarapan, Tini pergi segera. = After breakfast, Tini left immediately.

(4) before and after the word it modifies:
Saya yakin bukan Tini saja yang cantik. = I truly believe not only Tini is pretty.
Bagiku, senyumannya sangat manis sekali. = For me, her smile is very very pretty.
Kami hanya menerima saja apa yang diberikannya. = We just accept what is given.

An adverb can also clarify/modify a clause or an entire sentence.
Examples:
Sebaiknya Tini mandi sebelum pergi ke sekolah. = It's better that Tini takes a shower before going to school.
Seharusnya Tini mandi sebelum pergi ke sekolah. = Tini should take a shower before going to school.
Sebenarnya Tini tidak suka mandi. = In fact, Tini doesn't like to take a shower.


Types of adverbs, in terms of form :

Single adverb :
the [base word] is an adverb.
baru, hanya, lebih, hampir, saja, segera, selalu, senantiasa, paling, pasti, tentu

Adverb with affix :
a) 'se-' + [base word] + '-nya'
seharusnya, sebaiknya, sebenarnya, sesungguhnya, secepatnya.
b) [base word] + '-nya'
biasanya, rupanya, agaknya.

Adverb in reduplicated forms :
a) reduplication [base word]
diam-diam, lekas-lekas, pelan-pelan, tinggi-tinggi.
b) 'se-' + reduplication [base word]
setinggi-tinggi, sepandai-pandai, sesabar-sabar, segalak-galak.
c) reduplication [base word] + '-an'
habis-habisan, mati-matian, kecil-kecilan, gila-gilaan.
d) 'se-' + reduplication [base word] + 'nya'
setinggi-tingginya, sedalam-dalamnya, seikhlas-ikhlasnya, sekuat-kuatnya.

Combined adverb :
Combination of two adverb base words.
lagi pula, hanya saja, hampir selalu, sangat sekali, bukan saja.

Examples of reduplicated base words:
Andi diam-diam pergi ke toko buku.
Andi is quietly/secretly going to the bookshop.

Andi berjalan pelan-pelan ke toko buku.
Andi walks slowly to the bookshop.

Andi tiba-tiba muncul di depan toko buku.
Andi suddenly appears in fron of the bookshop.

Andi cepat-cepat membeli buku.
Andi quickly bought a book.

Kira-kira sepuluh ribu orang menonton pertandingan di stadiun.
Approximately ten thousand people are watching the match in the stadium.

Another way to form an adverb is by using 'dengan' or 'secara' in front of an adjective.
Examples:

Gerbang rumah Tini bisa dibuka secara otomatis.
The gate of Tini's house can be opened automatically.

Penjara ini dijaga dengan ketat.
This prison is guarded tightly.


Adverb as a conjunction.

Some adverbs can function as a conjunction word to connect clauses or sentences.
Examples:

Tini baru bangun. Walaupun begitu dia sangat cantik sekali.
Tini just woke up. Even though it's like that, she is very very pretty.
walaupun = meskipun = biarpun ==> although, even though.

Tini baru membeli rok baru. Sesudah itu dia pergi ke restoran.
Tini just bought a new skirt. After that she went to a restaurant.
sesudah itu = setelah itu = kemudian = lalu ==> then, subsequently, afterwards.
('baru' as an adverb and 'baru' as an adjective).

Kakek terkena penyakit jantung. Lagi pula dia juga mengidap tekanan darah tinggi.
Grandfather has a heart disease. In addition he also suffers from high blood pressure.
lagi pula = tambahan pula = selain itu ==> in addition, on top of that, other than that, furthermore

Andi tidak berhenti ketika ditahan polisi. Sebaliknya, dia langsung mengebut lewat jalur lain.
Andi didn't stop when he was halted by the police. On the contrary, he speeded up via another lane.
sebaliknya ==> on the contrary, vice versa,

Andi memang nakal. Sesungguhnya, dia sering begitu.
Andi is indeed naughty. Actually, he is often like that.
sesungguhnya ==> actually, in truth

Saya tidak pernah ke rumahnya, bahkan sampai sekarang alamatnya pun saya tidak tahu.
I have never been to his house, in fact until now I don't even know his address.
bahkan ==> even, in fact

Keadaan sudah aman. Akan tetapi, kita harus tetap waspada.
The situation is already safe. However, we must remain vigilant.
namun = akan tetapi ==> However.


Adverb as an opening discourse

(38a) these words are still used.
adapun, akan hal, mengenai, dalam pada itu.

(38b) usually in old literature.
alkisah, arkian, sebermula, syahdan.

The example sentences in my grammar book are too long. I didn't feel like typing them over. So, no examples here :)


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 6. Adverbia


Types of adverbs, in terms of semantics:

6.4.1. Adverbia Kualitatif
paling, sangat, lebih, kurang.

6.4.2. Adverbia Kuantitatif
banyak, sedikit, kira-kira, cukup.

6.4.3. Adverbia Limitatif
hanya, saja, sekadar.

6.4.4. Adverbia Frekuentatif
selalu, sering, kadang-kadang.

6.4.5. Adverbia Kewaktuan
baru, segera.

6.4.6. Adverbia Kecaraan
diam-diam, secepatnya, pelan-pelan.

6.4.7. Adverbia Kontrastif
bahkan, malahan, justru.

6.4.8. Adverbia Keniscayaan
niscaya, pasti, tentu.

(The numbers are chapter numbers of the source document).


6.8. DAFTAR ADVERBIA

1. Adverbia Tunggal

  • a. Adverbia Dasar
    baru, hanya, lebih, hampir, saja, segera, selalu, senantiasa, paling, pasti, tentu

  • b. Adverbia Berafiks
    -1) 'se-' + [dasar] + '-nya'
    seharusnya, sebaiknya, sebenarnya, sesungguhnya, secepatnya.
    -2) [dasar] + '-nya'
    biasanya, rupanya, agaknya

  • c. Adverbia Kata Ulang
    -1) reduplikasi [dasar]
    diam-diam, lekas-lekas, pelan-pelan, tinggi-tinggi.
    -2) 'se-'+ reduplikasi [dasar]
    setinggi-tinggi, sepandai-pandai, sesabar-sabar, segalak-galak.
    -3) reduplikasi [dasar] + '-an'
    habis-habisan, mati-matian, kecil-kecilan, gila-gilaan.
    -4) 'se-' + reduplikasi [dasar] + '-nya'.
    setinggi-tingginya, sedalam-dalamnya, seikhlas-ikhlasnya, sekuat-kuatnya.

2. Adverbia Gabungan

a. berdampingan
lagi pula, hanya saja, hampir selalu

b. tidak berdampingan
hanya ... saja, sangat ... sekali, bukan ... saja.

3. Adverbia Konjungtif

4. Konjungtor Pembuka Wacana


Here are more examples :

Kamu sangat cantik. = You are very pretty.
Kamu cantik sekali. = You are very pretty.
Saya baru bangun. = I just woke up.
Saya masih di rumah. = I am still at home.
Saya sudah makan. = I have already eaten.
Saya belum mandi. = I have not yet taken a shower.
Saya sudah pernah ke Bali. = I have ever been to Bali.
Saya belum pernah ke Bali. = I have never been to Bali.
Saya jarang ke pantai. = I seldom go to the beach.
Saya sering ke pantai. = I often go to the beach.
Kadang-kadang Tini juga ikut. = Sometimes Tini also comes along.
Tini tentu akan ikut hari ini. = Tini will certainly come along today.
Mungkin Tono juga mau ikut. = Maybe Tono would also like to come along.
Nanti saya pergi ke pantai. = Later I'll go to the beach.
Hanya Tini yang ikut ke pantai. = Only Tini is coming along to the beach.
Biasanya kami naik mobil. = Usually we go by car.
Sopirnya hampir di sini. = The chauffeur is almost here.
Tiba-tiba sopirnya muncul. = Suddenly the chauffeur appears.
Gerbang rumah bisa dibuka secara otomatis. = The gate of the house can be opened automatically.
Kita langsung pergi ke pantai. = We immediately go to the beach.
Tini sedang mandi sekarang. = Tini is taking a shower now.
Tini selalu mandi sebelum ke sekolah. = Tini always takes a shower before going to school.
Tini harus berangkat sekitar jam setengah tujuh. = Tini must leave at approximately half past six.
Tini jarang terlambat. = Tini is seldom too late.
Tini boleh mengendarai mobil. = Tini is allowed to drive a car.
Sebenarnya Tini tidak perlu sopir. = Actually Tini does not need a driver.
Akan tetapi, Dimas akan mengantarkan Tini ke sekolah. = However, Dimas will bring Tini to school.
Tini tidak perlu mengendarai mobil. = Tini does not need to drive the car.
Tini bisa santai saja di mobil = Tini can just relax in the car.


Selamat belajar !!!

September 14, 2019

3 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/alexnb33

Wow amazing work and very useful, take a lingot ^^


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DanielVanD18

Thanks, I think adverbs are so hard, but I'll work on them. That would have taken a long time...


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/alfredo_555

Terima kasih banyak!

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