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  5. "Livia est discipula."

"Livia est discipula."

Translation:Livia is a student.

September 14, 2019



I can tell that the difference between Discipula and Discipulus is that -la is female and -lus is male, but what's the difference between discipulum and discipulam?


discipulam = accusative singular of discipula; discipulum = accusative singular of discipulus


It's the same difference- discipulam is female and discipulum is male


Isn't discipula in the accusitive of this sentence sence it is the direct object of est.

  • 2765

"Essere/to be" is a stative verb, not an active verb. It does not take a direct object. There is no action for the noun to receive. "Discipula" needs to be in the nominative because it's the subject complement.


No, because it's a predicate nominative, not an object. Livia IS a student - they're equivalent - so the case does not change.


No, there is no object in this sentence. Compare:

Livia discipula est. (esse -> to be -> nominative)

Livia discipulam videt.

Now... Can you translate ‘Livia discipula videt?’ :)


Why is student in nominative?

  • 2765

If this were Polish it would be in the instrumental. Otherwise it's nominative because "esse/to be" is a verb of state that compares or equates. There is no action going on. As Danielconcasco said here four days ago:

We don't use accusatives with esse (to be). There is no direct object, receiving the action.

Livia doesn't act upon the student, she is the student.


Livia discipula est ....


The system accepts Livia discipula est.

  • 2765

Sure, but it's more common for the copula to come between the subject and the subject complement.


I'm having a problem with what has to be a very basic point. A dictionary says "discipulus" is a 2nd declension noun and its gender is masculine. I realize after reading this discussion, the form in the sentence is nominative. When I look at a chart of declensions there is only a choice of singular or plural with no mention of gender. I get a little obsessed with things like this (things I don't understand) which interferes with my ongoing learning. Thanks for your help in advance.


We'd have to know which dictionary you're using to know for sure, but in my experience it seems pretty common for a noun entry to simply that word's gender give its declensions even when there is a variant in either or both of the other genders.

It's adjectives that tend to list masculine, feminine, and neuter declensions together, since they have to match arbitrary nouns.


Discipula is its own word. Or atleast you can consider it that way. They are listed seperately. Just like many languages have different words for the male and female versions of an occupation, english only has a few it took me forever to think of one! Actor and actress.

Btw wiktionary is kind enough to show the female/male variant in its entry. (Not the chart, just a clickable mention)


And indeed like rinzero says, adjectives show all the declensions since it doesn't have a gender on its own but corresponds with the noun it is representing.

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