"Stephanus goes to the market with Livia."
Translation:Stephanus cum Livia ad forum it.
I feel like im given alot of questions wuth words ive only seen the meaning to once.
I need to see it and be able to click and translate at least a few times. This level 3 has intiduced several very difficult words at once and its very confusing i need a slightly different pace for so many forms of i go they go we go.
That's a good question! If both Stephanus and Livia are both the "subjects" (in the nominative case) of the verb "go / are going," then indeed, we would want: Stephanus et Livia ad forum eunt .
However, in this sentence, only Stephanus is the subject (nomin. case), since Livia is "only" put in the sentence via the preposition cum , "with," which makes the nouns it govern be ablative case; thus, Stephanus is the sole subject:
Stephanus cum Livia ad forum it . (If we used macrons for long vowels on Duolingo, you'd see that Livia's name in this sentence, when she's the object of preposition cum , is really different: Livia (with LONG a).
You can see it better in this sentence: Livia goes to the market with Stephanus. Livia cum Stephano ad forum it .
We have the same thing in English: Livia and Stephanus are going to the market. (plural subject, plural "they" verb) Stephanus is going to the market with Livia . (singular subject, singular "he" verb)
I hope this is clear.
Because that's not how it's being framed. We have the same thing in English:
Stephanus is going to the market with Livia.
as distinct from
Stephanus and Livia are going to the market.
I am going to the movies with my friends.
as distinct from
My friends and I are going to the movies.
Dictionaries tell you this information: they will indicate " + accus." or "+ abl." , or will show how the meaning changes if the preposition (like in and sub ) can be used with both cases.
It's only ever an accusative or an ablative that can follow a preposition.
Sometimes it seems purely arbitrary; but the "from" prepositions (a/ab, e/ex, de) all take the ablative for their objects; and the "motion towards/into" ones (in, ad) take accusative.
There are prepositions for "position/location", which sometimes are used with ablative, sometimes with accusative: for example, in + ablative is the classic one for "location in" a place; similarly, sub + abl., for "location under" something. But ad (still always + accusative) = "location at" a place, with verbs like sedere, dormire, stare, etc.
Always ad forum : YES! Because the preposition ad (to, towards; at) invariably controls a noun in the accusative case.
But in foro and in forum both exist, with a (profound) change in meaning:
in + ACCUS = into, onto. He hurries into the forum: In forum festinat .
in + ABLATIVE = in, on. The shop is in the forum: Taberna est in foro.