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  5. "Stephanus goes to the market…

"Stephanus goes to the market with Livia."

Translation:Stephanus cum Livia ad forum it.

September 16, 2019



Keep in mind (if you still don't read Tips and Notes) that "cum" is used with the ablative case and Livia here is actually Livi.

If it was, say, Marcus, the name would be written differently even without macrons:
Stephanus cum Marco ad forum it. (Mārcō)


Really, macrons would help us to understand that!


I like using macrons, as a teacher, because (in some situations) it affects the pronunciation greatly.


Corinna won't be happy.


I feel like im given alot of questions wuth words ive only seen the meaning to once.

I need to see it and be able to click and translate at least a few times. This level 3 has intiduced several very difficult words at once and its very confusing i need a slightly different pace for so many forms of i go they go we go.


Why it here and not is or eunt

  • 2234

Because the singular subject is Stephanus. "With Livia" is a detail added later.

"Stephanus goes to the market (with Livia)." Not "Stephanus and Livia go to the market."


it (ending in -t) = He/She/It goes. is (ending in -s) = You (singular) go. eunt (ending in -nt) = They go.

There are also: imus (ending in -mus): "we go" and itis (ending in -tis): "you (plural) go."


If Stephanus and Livia are both going to the market why is it "it" instead of "eunt"? It doesn't make sense.


That's a good question! If both Stephanus and Livia are both the "subjects" (in the nominative case) of the verb "go / are going," then indeed, we would want: Stephanus et Livia ad forum eunt .

However, in this sentence, only Stephanus is the subject (nomin. case), since Livia is "only" put in the sentence via the preposition cum , "with," which makes the nouns it govern be ablative case; thus, Stephanus is the sole subject:

Stephanus cum Livia ad forum it . (If we used macrons for long vowels on Duolingo, you'd see that Livia's name in this sentence, when she's the object of preposition cum , is really different: Livia (with LONG a).

You can see it better in this sentence: Livia goes to the market with Stephanus. Livia cum Stephano ad forum it .

We have the same thing in English: Livia and Stephanus are going to the market. (plural subject, plural "they" verb) Stephanus is going to the market with Livia . (singular subject, singular "he" verb)

I hope this is clear.

  • 2234

Because that's not how it's being framed. We have the same thing in English:

Stephanus is going to the market with Livia.
as distinct from
Stephanus and Livia are going to the market.

I am going to the movies with my friends.
as distinct from
My friends and I are going to the movies.


How do we know what noun ending to use with each preposition?


Dictionaries tell you this information: they will indicate " + accus." or "+ abl." , or will show how the meaning changes if the preposition (like in and sub ) can be used with both cases.

It's only ever an accusative or an ablative that can follow a preposition.

Sometimes it seems purely arbitrary; but the "from" prepositions (a/ab, e/ex, de) all take the ablative for their objects; and the "motion towards/into" ones (in, ad) take accusative.

There are prepositions for "position/location", which sometimes are used with ablative, sometimes with accusative: for example, in + ablative is the classic one for "location in" a place; similarly, sub + abl., for "location under" something. But ad (still always + accusative) = "location at" a place, with verbs like sedere, dormire, stare, etc.


Simple explanation for when to use "forum" versus "foro" with prepositions, please.

Can you generalize so far as to say it's always "ad forum" and "in foro"?


Always ad forum : YES! Because the preposition ad (to, towards; at) invariably controls a noun in the accusative case.

But in foro and in forum both exist, with a (profound) change in meaning:

in + ACCUS = into, onto. He hurries into the forum: In forum festinat .

in + ABLATIVE = in, on. The shop is in the forum: Taberna est in foro.

  • 2234

It's static location (ablative) vs motion toward (accusative).


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