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  5. "Toga candida sub stola est."

"Toga candida sub stola est."

Translation:The white toga is under the dress.

September 18, 2019



Togas were not worn under a dress. Tunics is the word for a garment worn under a stola or toga or by itself.


I just thought this sentence was referring to a pile of clothes where the toga is underneath a dress


I assume they mean both garments are lying on the table (or on the floor), and the stola is on top. It's still odd, because the toga is a much bigger garment, so it's not going to be hidden or anything.


I imagined someone who is in a hurry and stressed, frantically looking for their toga, and a more relaxed person pointing out to them that they overlooked the garment pile.


Probably an oblique reference to Clodius Pulcher dressed as a woman at the rites of Bona Dea. :)


"Gown" instead of "dress" should also work


By day, she is a normal person wearing a normal dress - little do they know that she is secretly a Roman waiting to reveal it when the need arises!


Et sub toga infectio candida est.


This is another "Is this supposed to be specifically Classical Latin" ambiguity: "stola" could also be translated "stole."


Like in "steal"? What is a stole?


There's an English noun, stole, derived from Latin stola (the dress worn over the tunica by a Roman matron or married woman), thus unrelated to the verb steal.

In English a stole is either: a woman's long scarf, of cloth or fur, worn over the shoulders ("a mink stole"); or it's "A long scarf, usually of embroidered silk or linen, worn over the left shoulder by deacons and over both shoulders by priests and bishops while officiating." (quoting from the American Heritage Dictionary.)

(Funny to see a full-length dress 'reduced' to a bit of drapery.)


Oh yes, I see, from old French "estole" (modern French "étole")
I see exactly what is an "étole". Thank you for your help.

In French, they translate "stola" by "stole", as they like to remove the "a" of Latin names to make them French, as "étole", old form estole, (thus the English "stole")

I think it's rather used nowadays by Catholic priests (and sometimes Protestants and Orthodoxes).

It's very hard to know if the primitive religious stoles were long or short, as they give contradictory info on wikipedia.

The French page says it was originally a long dress, worn by priests, and the English pages says:

"The stole was originally a kind of shawl that covered the shoulders and fell down in front of the body; on women they were often very large. After being adopted by the Church of Rome around the seventh century (the stole having also been adopted in other locales prior to this), the stole gradually became narrower and started to feature more ornate designs, developing into a mark of dignity. Nowadays, the stole is usually wider and can be made from a wide variety of material."

(Note: It's a cognate of the German "stellen", but not via Latin, but PIE root)

So,"stola" as "stole" is possible, but probably not in classical Latin, in late Latin. The étole was used as a non-religious garment before, but the "stole" is defined as "a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations". I think that, in English "stola" = the Latin stola, and "stole" = the Christian garment.


Interesting discussion. Thank you. Cf. Latin stola came from Greek στολή, a robe (of good quality), long garment, which in LXX gets used for priestly garments (Exod 28:2 στολὴν ἁγίαν // Vulgate vestem sanctam). Jerome didn't use stola in Exod 28:2, probably because in Latin stola was associated with a matron's garment. At times, esp. in the Vetus Latina (VL), however, the term stola retains the Greek sense of a robe-like male garment (Gen 41:42 Joseph's garment in Vulgate and VL; 2 Macc 3:15 VL = priest's garment). In modern Greek, στολή now refers to a uniform.


Reporting from Brazil, it is more common to see priestly stoles that sort of look like long ponchos reaching to the shins more often than the ones that look like simple bands; in fact, both are stoles. Like most things after Vatican II, there has been a movement towards restoring more primitive forms in vestments and liturgy; or at least what was thought to have been primitive in the 1960s.

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