What is the difference between these two terms? Also, is the difference between 'es/esta' the same?
No hay problema...te deseo éxito. :) No problem, I wish you success.
I wrote this for another post, but I'll post it again here:
First to know, we have two verbs here:
estar (estoy, estás, está, estamos, están)
ser (soy, eres, es, somos, son)
Estar vs Ser
I've never been one to memorize acronyms and I never liked the inconstancy of temporary/permanent ('if I am still growing, is it soy alto or estoy alto?', why is death a temporary (estar) condition?)
Instead of thinking temporary (estar) and permanent (ser), try thinking state (estar) and essence (ser). When trying to decide which to use, ask yourself "does this make up the essence of the noun or does it describe it's current state?". It takes a little bit of brain training, but once you get the hang of it, these difference become clear.
Back to the previous examples, would you consider height part of your innate characteristic (essence) or your current state of being? The answer in this case is essence (ser). Your height is part of who you are, thus your essence.
Now it should be easy to see why death uses estar. Being dead does not change who you are, it just changes your current state of life.
Some more examples that often confuse people who only think in terms of temporary/permanent. A building's location is estar. It is describing the state of it's location. If the building is picked up and moved somewhere, the essence of the building remains the same. A party's location is ser. Where the party is located changes the essence of the party. If the party is moved from John's house to the beach, the essence of the party is going to be different.
This also makes sense in describing people.
Estoy aburrido. (I am bored.) This just describes your current state. Right now, you are bored.
Soy aburrido. (I am boring.) This describes who you are (your essence). At your core, you are a boring person.
Hope this helps, and it does take some practice to get a good 'feel' for it, but once you do, it is a lot easier then running through a list of acronyms or dealing with the confusion of permanent/temporary.