Estimate is considered a synonym, but the dictionaries tell us that it's an archaism.
It had the meaning of evaluate the price, but now it's more "evaluating the size, etc, of something, I think.
What's estimated here?
In romance languages it can either mean
It can be to calculate, value or appraise, to respect, to have someoo or simmering in high respect, high opinion and hide regard, it can also mean to consider or deem, to hold an opinion, as if being almost sure that sunbathing will or won't happen.
Which of these all was the original meaning (s)?
I read it comes from old Latin ais-temos, the copper cutting worker who minting coins. But what's the limit or specific semantic in classic Latin?
I think it's estimating the price, the value, how much it worth.
It can be figurative, when you talk about friendship for instance or someone, but couldn't be figurative here, in this context.
In Romance language, for instance, if I say "Je t'estime", it's a way to say I appreciate you (I really like you), because I estimated your (great) "value".
With non figurative sentences (with inert things), it's only the price.
is "the" necessary in Latin?
Latin does not have any articles, which means that without any greater context, "Fures gemmas aestimant" can just as easily be translated into English in any of the following ways:
The thieves appraise the gems.
The thieves appraise gems.
Thieves appraise the gems.
Thieves appraise gems.