"The gods kill the enemies."
Translation:Dei hostes interficiunt.
I'm a little surprised by the word for "enemy" in Latin - hostis - it sounds more like "hosts." And why did Latin's offspring not follow suit? Much like the English word "enemy," the word in French is "ennemi," in Spanish it's "enemigo," in Portuguese it's "inimigo," in Romanian it's "inamic" and in Italian it's "nemico."
There's also the word inimicus, for "enemy" in Latin: meaning, one's personal rival, someone you disliked/hated for private reasons. As you say, this is the source of the Romance words for enemy and of English inimical.
The word hostis means "public enemy," i.e., a foreigner, one who attacks (or might!) one's own people. So, an enemy to your whole nation (not someone privately hated). And gives us hostile, hostility, etc.
I think it's true that hostis (enemy) and hospes, hospitis (guest/host; friend with whom one has long-established ties of reciprocal hospitality) are related words: the basic idea is "stranger, foreigner," who can either be a 'tamed' hospes (because you've established these special ties with him and his family) or a hated and feared hostis.
Words like hospitality, hospitable, hotel (hospital) and host (who receives guests) all come from Latin hospes (nomin.), hospitis (gen.), m/f.
There's also English host (as in "Lord God of hosts") that means army (or large group: "a host of daffodils"), from Latin hostis.
(And the other host--the consecrated one--from the Latin hostia that means "victim, sacrificial offering.")
Etymology of *enemy"
inimicus -> (early) old French inimi -> Old/middle French enemi (sometimes enemy, as "i" and "y" were interchangeable) -> Modern French ennemi, and Modern English enemy.
inimi (9c.) "enemy, adversary, foe; demon, the Devil,"
Latin inimicus "an enemy," literally "an unfriend," noun use of adjective meaning "hostile, unfriendly" (source also of Italian nemico, Catalan enamic, Spanish enemigo, Portuguese inimigo)
Latin amare (to love) -> amīcus (someone who we love, a friend) -> French ami, Spanish amigo, Italian amico (Italian = the closer of the Latin amicus)
Inimity, from French inimitié, opposite of amitié (= friendship)
The Spanish, for instance, shows the same opposition enemigo/amigo, much cleared than the French ennemi/ami, that is very difficult to see.
Latin inimicus "unfriendly", gave also, probably not directly from Latin, but via old French -> inimical.
Yes: amicus / inimicus; they're opposites.
(That's why it's interesting that Latin had a word for "public" enemy, namely hostis, and a different word for a personal/private enemy (or rival), inimicus. )
The element in- means "not", as in: complete vs. incomplete; perfect vs. imperfect (as in verb tenses); so, amicus and inimicus (the "weakening" of the short a- of amicus to a short i is typical: seen also in facere, to do, but reficere, to redo, do again; conficere, to do completely, to finish, etc.).
Host and hostile, it's not exactly the same root, or rather, it's the same root in the origin...
You have root 1 hospitem and root 2 hostilis,
both are from the same root related with foreigner,
but they evolved in 2 distinct roots:
- The first one means "foreigner" in the positive meaning -> hospitality., hospital.
- And the second "foreigner" in a negative meaning. -> hostility
Host is from French:
Hôte (old form: hoste) -> English host.
Hôtesse (hostesse) -> English: hostess.
Related with Hôtel (Hostel) -> English hostel.
Old French meaning: "guest, host, hostess, landlord"
= It's the same root than "hospital".
Latin hospes/hospitem -> French hôpital (old form hospital), hospitalité, hospice
-> English hospital, hospitality, and hospice.
Hospes/hospitem = "guest, stranger, sojourner, visitor (hence also 'foreigner')," also "host; one bound by ties of hospitality."
Latin hostilis -> French hostile -> English hostile.
from Middle French hostile "of or belonging to an enemy" (15c.) or directly from Latin hostilis "of an enemy, belonging to or characteristic of the enemy; inimical," from hostis, in earlier use "a stranger, foreigner," in classical use "an enemy," from PIE root *ghos-ti- "stranger, guest, host."