Eu acho que "I can't hear a thing," deverá ser aceite.
WHY "I don't get to listen anything" is incorrect?
Listen requires the preposition "to". Since hear and listen are used in different ways, listen wouldnt make much sense...
Is "Eu ouço nada" incorrect?
Not incorrect, but a native speaker would not use it.
My answer means the same as yours
"eu nao posso ouvir nada" is acceptable too or not?
You can say that, but only if you can't phylically hear anything. Like if you were deaf