And if the object is a person, “esteem"
EDIT: I was thinking in English. Esteem is from aestimo, via French, but is only from the 1530s. In Latin I haven’t found a person as an object of aestimo.
I'm not a native (warning).
Isn't it rather "to estimate" than "to esteem"?
The meaning "to appraise" for "to esteem" is marked as "archaism" in the dictionaries.
I don't see the esteem/evaluate difference for human beings/for things (I don't say you're wrong, but I couldn't find it anywhere).
Esteem" from "estime/estimer" and "estimate" from "estimation".
I’ve edited my previous post to cancel what I said about aestimo with a person as an object since I’ve been unable to find an example in Classical Latin. “Appraise” is still used - e.g. “You should have it appraised”, although “evaluated” is probably more frequent.
I'm not an English native speaker. I've read online that "appraise" comes from "apprize" (from prize, that today is written price) + praise (to express approval, gratitude, admiration, to worship, etc). They seem to have mixed in late middle English. Both come from late Latin "pretiare" (from Latin pretio), through Old French preisier.
Price, praise and appraise come from the same Latin word through the French participle of "apprendre", which comes from Latin "apprehendere", a figurative way for "learning", or gasping with the mind, from ad+prehendere. "Prehendere" or "prendere" (it seems to have lost the "eh" in the way), means to lay hold of, seize, grasp, grab, catch, detain, take by surprise, among other meanings.
Many languages like Italian, French and Portuguese still have slight variations of prendere and aprendere, with some of the different original meanings like to take. In Spanish the most common meaning of prender is to turn on a fire, or the lights, a machine or any device. That meaning takes over displacing the others. Pender can still mean to take or to catch, those meanings still exist, but are out fashioned and less common.
Some languages make a difference between aprender(e) and aprehender(e), using the first for "to learn" and the second, less common, for"to catch", "to capture" and such. In Spanish and Portuguese that h has no sound and the use of aprehender is not common, and the way of pronouncing the double e in "ehe" seems somehow unnatural in Spanish. In the contexts of Phliosophy or Education, sometimes "adprehendere" with eh is revived for grasping a concept, as opposed to "aprendere" without h for learning like in learning by heart. In Portuguese, as well, "aprehender" is for understanding, etc., and aprender for a confiscation.
Price, praise and appraise are Not to be mistaken for "appris" or "apprise" (to notify, make aware of, keep up to date). The latter come in another way from the same Latin original words, but through French "pris". PriZe, like a reward for winning something, with z, comes as well from French pris, from Latin prendere or prehendere used to form aprendere/aprehendere.
Etymology: Pretium came in English from French "prix" (old form: pris).
Praise is also from this same French root.
[Price =] "value, worth; praise," later "cost, recompense, prize" (mid-13c.), from Old French pris price, value, wages, reward" also honor, fame, praise, prize (Modern French prix), from Late Latin precium, from Latin pretium reward, prize, value, worth, from PIE *pret (...)
Praise, price, and prize began to diverge in Old French, with praise emerging in Middle English by early 14c. and prize being evident by late 1500s with the rise of the -z- spelling. Having shed the extra Old French and Middle English senses, the word now again has the base sense of the Latin original. To set (or put) a price on someone, "offer a reward for capture" is from 1766.
Praise from French priser (give a price, estimate, old form: prisier)
c. 1300, "to laud, commend, flatter," from Old French preisier, variant of prisier "to praise, value," from Late Latin preciare, earlier pretiare, from Latin pretium "reward, prize, value. Replaced Old English lof, hreþ.
Specifically with God as an object from late 14c. Related: Praised; praising. Now a verb in most Germanic languages (German preis, Danish pris, etc.), but only in English is it differentiated in form from cognate price.