"كَيْف اَلْعَمَل يا سام؟"
Translation:How is work, Sam?
It would be the same in fact. This is one of the instances where the definition article does not exactly match between English and Arabic. Like my classical example of I love nature. In Arabic: أحب الطبيعة where الطبيعة would translates, naturally, to the nature - but saying I love the nature is not quite common in English. So, in the sentence above, work is already defined in Arabic العمل; I think English tends to use the indefinite noun when it talks about a general aspect or thing, like nature above. However, it doesn't work in the same manner in Arabic.
I think they are using literal translation from Arabic. Because if I added (your) here, the whole sentence should be: كيف عملك يا سام.
This aside, in Arabic, whether standard or in regular everyday speech, we use such expressions without "your" actually because the speaker and the receiver are supposedly on the same page; They both know what is being talked about, so such possessive pronouns are dropped sometimes in such questions or other similar expressions.