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Confusing Arabic pronunciation

I have recently started to learn Arabic and I'm quite confused with some words and how to pronounce them. For example عِنْد ("have") should be pronounced as [ʕind] since the ´ below the ع is pronounced like an i. But when it's time to hear its sound the voice says [ʕand]. Why?

This happens also with other words like مُتَرجِم (translator), should be pronounced like [mutarʤim], (because تَ is [ta]) but all I hear is [muturʤim] and it sounds kind of senseless. I understand there are letters like ي or و with several possible sounds (ii, y) (uu, w), but I can't understand these kind of cases I just showed you.

Also I’ve seen things like يِّ, that as the theory says, should be pronounced as iiayii ([ii] from ي, [a] from ‘ and [yii] from the small w), but no, it is just [yii]. Where is this rule written in? Why is this pronounced as [yii] without any [a] sound if there is a ´ above the letter?

Therefore, after all these nonsense I’ve came to the conclussion that I have no chance but to try to learn the words as they’re written and pronounced instead of trying to understand its sounds, which would actually be the best way to learn. So if there was any native arab out there who could explain me these pronunciation rules (cause the theory just doesn’t say anything about this) I’d be more than grateful.

October 5, 2019

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Rule No.1 on Duolingo-Arabic: Do not pay attention to the audio. Or rather, not much attention to the audio. I've been working on correcting some things for learners here who were misled big time by the audio.
The audio here is mainly a speech machine or TTS. The speech machine is not adequate and makes a lot of mistakes (even grammatical-wise) and there are many words out there that do sound funny when the TTS spells them out. To add salt to the wound: Duolingo uses some words and expressions from dialects and mixes them up with MSA (or modern standard Arabic).

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