so, when do you use "هُناك مَطَر. in a context?
in german e.g. you use the literal translation of "there is rain" in a context like "it is going to be rainy". for my understanding "there is rain" sounds weird, when I imagine standing infront of a window, looking outside, seeing the rain, then I would say, "Its raining" or "its rainy"
It is hard to understand the arabic, when you not even understand the english sentence :')
Yes it might be strange a bit. Even for me as a native. In situations where it is raining it is most probably translated to إنها تمطر (it is raining). Anyway, all I can add to this is that it is a direct translation to There is rain and nothing more. Other expressions I could think of which involve rain:
- Rainy night: ليلة ممطرة (laylatun mumTirah).
- Rainy day: يوم ممطر (yawmun mumTir).
- Rainforest: غابة مطيرة (ğábatun maTírah).
- Heavy rain: مطر غزير (maTarun ğazír).
- Rainy weather: جو ممطر (jawwun mumTir).
ğ = French "R" sound.
Yes, طقس is also weather even though it is not an original Arabic word (as some user here brought to my attention that it is derived from Greek). Also, the word طقس is translated sometimes as ritual in Arabic and this is exactly how it is used in Greek.
In some Arab countries, the weather conditions in general is translated as الأنواء (al-anwá') and this is more original in Arabic. This word is also used in astronomy to note some aspects about the stars or the moon (if memory doesn't fail me here).
Anyway, طقس is accepted now into the language and you can see it in some media or newspaper.
The word جو (jaw) is another word that means weather and also you can find it (in adjective form) in the media as الأحوال الجوية (al-aHwál al-jawiyyah), literally the conditions/the weather-ic - i don't know how to derive an adjective from the noun "weather" in English, but this is possible in Arabic.
Just a bonus: Atmospheric pressure is translated as الضغط الجوي (aDH-DHağT al-jawwiy), here, again, الجوي is an adjective (masculine this time) which is derived from the noun جو (jaw) meaning weather. So, you can see the word (jaw) is involved in many things related to the weather (and even translated as atmosphere sometimes).
Reply to TJ_Q8: you say you "don't know how to derive an adjective from the noun "weather" in English". It's very simple in English. You just place the noun in question (eg weather) in front of the noun it's going to qualify (eg conditions), and hey presto, we turn a noun into an adjective! I think that's a pretty shocking thing for a language to do, to baptise nouns as adjective just by the order in which they're uttered.
In general meaning, I think it would do, but I doubt Duolingo would accept that. This is because (rains) here is a verb actually, and in Arabic there is a matching verb. So, technically speaking, if I want to say (it rains) I would say إنها تُمطر (innahá tumTir). However, the phrase above says simply هناك مطر which translates directly to (there is rain).
I don't see the problem. Just as Arabic word order requires noun-adjective, and English word order is the opposite - adjective-noun, كراج كبير translates as a big garage, and الأحوال الجوية translates as "weather conditions" (also frequently used in English media), with the adjective and noun in reverse order. Literal translation, making allowances for the different rules of grammar.
This is not what I meant. What I do usually is give word-by-word and in the Arabic order to let the learner visualize the order of words AND the type of words. The thing is not about "translating" but aiding the learner to visualize the order and type of words. For example, in English you would say the weather conditions which is (article/noun/noun.pl) but in Arabic it's الأحوال الجوية which is (noun.pl/adjective) and would literally translate as (the conditions/atmospheric) - I'm using atmospheric here since I don't know how to drive an adjective out of "weather". It's just my way to explain to learners what is going on in details in the Arabic context.