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Could someone please explain “Ekstere” to me?

I get that ekstere = “outside”

but “outside” in English is a noun (a place), and aren’t Esperanto words ending in -e supposed to be adverbs?

This sentence - “Mi manĝas ekstere” translates to “I am eating outside”

but if -e words are supposed to be adverbs, wouldn’t this actually be “I am eating outside-like/outsidely” That doesn’t actually make sense to me. It sounds like the sentence is trying to say “I am eating in the way that outside eats”

Shouldn’t this actually be ekstero (noun)? This confuses me.

October 17, 2019



Adverbs answer - how, where, when, condition, reason.

Dictionary dot com defines "outside" as an adverb meaning:

  • on or to the outside, exterior, or space without: Take the dog outside.
  • in or to an area that is removed from or beyond a given place or region: The country's inhabitants seldom travel outside.

Wow. I never actually knew that. I guess it makes sense if that’s true. I searched it and found it under a noun actually. Weird.

Yes, in English "outside" can also be a noun - as in "the outside" in the definition which I quoted. However, in your example, were not "eating an outside" so it's not the noun meaning we're interested in.

October 17, 2019


I guess “Mi manĝas ekstero(n)” would mean “I am literally eating outside (object)”

So I guess I understand why it’s not an -o ending. But why -e? Why not -a?

October 17, 2019


-e words (adverbs) describe the verb. How/where are you eating? outside.

but to turn your question around: if it were an '-a' word (adjective) it would have to describe a noun. So which one. not 'mi' - you wouldn't say "outside-I am eating" - "ekstera mi manĝas"*; and not an implied objject of some sort "I am eating an outside (meal)" - "mi manĝas eksteran (manĝon)" - well, you might grammatically say that, but that's not what our simple sentence is trying to say.

  • (digression: is "ekstera mi" even grammatical in Esperanto? it's not in English, and while I sometimes see "poor me!" or suchlike as an interjection, I don't think you can use it as an object, either - "they're beating up unhappy me")
October 17, 2019
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