Actually the word is quite common and lot of people think of it as an original Arabic word, but it isn't. In Morocco they spell it more closely to its Spanish counterpart: tablah.
The proper Arabic name for "Table" is منضدة (minDHadah). If the table is for serving food specifically, then it is خوان (xiwán). If the table has food served on it already then the whole setting is called مائدة (má'idah).
In literature or regular Arabic text you might find طاولة is used regularly or sometimes مائدة regardless of their original classical (delicate) meanings. Probably خوان is still used in some dialects of Arabic, I'm not sure. However, all in all, the word طاولة is accepted now as a regular Arabic word and you might find in literature regularly as I said.