"Peter's grandmother has come from Delhi today."
Translation:पीटर की दादी आज दिल्ली से आयी हैं।
पीटर की दादी आज दिल्ली से आयी हैं। = Peter's grandmother has come from Delhi today - Present perfect tense
पीटर की दादी आज दिल्ली से आयी। =Peter's grandmother came from Delhi today - Simple Past tense
Side note: The English letters 'T' and 'D' in 'Peter and 'David' are transliterated as ट and ड in Hindi because they are pronounced as retroflex letters in Indian English. So, Peter would usually be written पीटर instead of पितर.
No. Arabic does not have retroflex consonants. They are pronounced by curling your tongue backwards with the tip touching the roof of your mouth.
Till you get used to pronouncing these letters correctly, you can cheat a little though. Pronounce त and द as ت and د with the toungue touching your upper teeth (which is the correct pronunciation of त and द) and ट and ड as ت and د with the toungue touching behind the teeth (as in English T and D). Hindi does not have the latter set of sounds so Hindi speakers hear them as retroflex.
Note: Hindi has another retroflex consonant ड़ which is pronounced by trying to make the 'र' sound with the tongue in the position for ड. No cheats available for this one, unfortunately.
They are different sounds in Hindi. त is pronounced by your tongue touching your upper teeth. Since you're also learning Spanish, it's the same as the Spanish 't'.
ट is pronounced by your tongue being slightly curled back and the tip of your tongue touching the roof of your mouth.
The English 't' sound as in Peter does not exist in Hindi so it's transliterated as ट when English words with it are written in the Hindi script.
The presence of हैं here implies the use of present perfect tense- Peter's grandmother has come from Delhi. Whereas the way you mentioned it, it would translate to simple past tense- Peter's grandmother came from Delhi. Its not grammatically wrong to omit the हैं but it would change the meaning. And also btw ayee would be spelled as आईं (ayeen with a nasal sound) as dadi is an elder person:)
No. आये is the masculine plural form which is used for respect when the subject is male.
आयी is both the feminine singular and plural form. However, we have used the plural हैं instead of है here to show respect.
Note: If a sentence doesn't have a हैं like 'पीटर की दादी दिल्ली से आयीं' (Peter's grandmother came from Delhi), we nasalise आयी at the end (आयीं instead of आयी) to show respect.
Does the past form agrees with the subject or the object when the verb is intransitive like in this sentence? Does it agree with dadi or with delhi?
It is clear to me that with transitive verbs that use -ne, the verb agrees with the object, not the subject. But still confused about the intransitives. I would really appreciate your clarification.
We use the nasalized ending on verbs to indicate feminine plurals only when there is no हैं or थीं in the sentence.
पीटर की दादी आज नहीं आयीं - Peter's grandmother did not come today.
When there is a हैं or थीं, they already do the job of indicating plural (or respectful form) so you don't need to nasalize the verb-ending.