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DuoLinguo lessons with macrons. 1.3.WHERE/PLACES


Adjectives Just like nouns, adjectives follow declensions. The adjective sōlus (masc.), sōla (fem.), sōlum (neut.) follow the first and second declension, and get the same endings as nouns: discipulus - fēmina - Eborācum.

Have a look at how the ending of the adjective changes:

Latin English Gender

discipulus novus a new student masculine

familia nova a new family feminine

cīvitās nova a new state feminine

Novum Eborācum New York neuter

Nōmen novum a new name neuter

When using sum, you also need to make sure the adjective agrees with the noun.

Latin English

Mārcus est Rōmānus. Marcus is Roman.

Līvia Americāna est. Livia is American.

Nōmen est novum. The name is new.

Ego sōlus sum. I am alone. (masculine)

Ego sōla sum. I am alone. (feminine)


The locative case is a special case which indicates a location used for cities.

Some general rules: • -a (first declension) becomes -ae • -us and -um (second declension) become -ī

Nominative Locative English (loc.)

Rōma Rōmae in Rome

Novum Eborācum Novī Eborācī in NewYork

Corinthus Corinthī in Corinth

Other locations will generally get a preposition (in + ablative, we will deal with the ablative later in the course).

Latin English

in Italiā in Italy

in urbe in the city

Domī (at home) is an exception!


The particle num indicates that the speaker expects a negative answer; the speaker would be surprised if someone answered yes.

Compare the following sentences.

Latin English Expected Answer

Num Rōmae habitat? Surely he doesn't live in Rome? Negative

Habitatne Rōmae? Does he live in Rome? Neutral


The suffix -(i)tās is the equivalent of the English -(i)ty. These nouns follow the third declension and are feminine.

Latin English

ūniversitās university

lībertās liberty, freedom

difficultās difficulty, trouble

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional info

familia family 1st, fem.

Bostonia Boston 1st, fem.

Philadelphīa Philadelphia 1st, fem.

Novum Eborācum New York 2nd, neut.

iuvenis young man 3rd, masc.

urbs (Pl. urbēs) city 3rd, fem.

cīvitās (pl. cīvitātēs) state 3rd, fem.

ūniversitās university 3rd, fem. (pl. ūniversitātēs)

sōlus alone -us, -a, -um

novus new -us, -a, -um

nātus born -us, -a, -um

meus my -us, -a, -um

Americānus American -us, -a, -um

multī many -ī, -ae, -a (plural) quid what, which 3rd, neut. quot how many

Germānia Germany

November 27, 2019



Dear co-learners, those who give negative rating, your opinion is especially important for me. Could you possibly explain how could I make this macronized lesson better, or maybe you find it unnecessary.

  • 1082

I found it instructive. Can you list a few sentences that illustrate the way the nomitive and accusative cases change the meaning? Like “a man hits a parrot” compared to “a parrot hits a man” or similar simple statements. Thanks


Thank you so much for this Dmitri. It's very instructive and will help me understand Latin better. This material is very well suited for placement into tables, so I copied it into a document file and am going to put it in tables. I am a visual learner, so that will help me to study and learn it better.

Good job on compiling this information!


I am happy that it was useful for you. Thank you for that comment. I actually made those using WORD. But the posts in here change the formatting. You can file those file in a much better form in here: https://archive.org/details/@dmitri_crishtopa


Wow Dmitri! Thank you for the files. I am downloading them. I've also found when posting, that the original format gets changed. I appreciate the work that you have done in making the tables. They will be very helpful!


I am delighted those files were helpful!

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