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  5. "Hello and thank you, friend."

"Hello and thank you, friend."

Translation:Halò agus tapadh leat a charaid.

December 3, 2019



When do you use "tapadh leat" over "tapadh leibh"? I typed the latter and it accepted it, but also said that the former was an alternative answer. So in this case it seems to be interchangeable, but not always.


I got some of what I asked here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/35384045

I'm guessing that it is interchangeable in this example because "you" could be masculine or feminine and you would vary based on who you are talking to. Is that guess right?


No, that’s completely unrelated.

What you ask about in this sentence – the difference between leat and leibh – is the difference between singular informal form (leat) used when speaking to your peer with whom you’re on first name basis, and plural/formal form (leibh), used when speaking to more than one person, and when speaking to a stranger, an elderly, etc. (used to show respect or keep distance).

What you linked is about the attributive adjectives (adjectives describing a noun they stand next to) and their lenition (changed pronunciation marked by added h after the first consonant) – there are no attributive adjectives in the sentence of this thread.


So it's like using usted in spanish? Are there other phrases like that?


Learned caraid as friend but practicing, it always tells me I'm spelling it wrong and that it requires an extra h. Is this formal vs informal perhaps?


caraid is the basic form (nominative-accusative), eg. tha an caraid anns an taigh ‘the friend is in the house’ or chí mi caraid ‘I see a friend’

But when you address people in Gaelic, you need a vocative, and words starting with a consonant form their vocative using a particle a before them and lenition of their first consonant – so when speaking to your friend you’ll address them by a charaid.

There is no particle a before vowels (so vocative of Anna is just Anna).

Some words (especially masculine nouns) will have some other changes in vocative too (eg. Seumas ‘James’, a Sheumais ‘(oh, my) James!’ – this vocative has been borrowed back as Hamish into English).

And lenition will happen in other situations too (eg. in nom. of fem. nouns after the definite article: ‘a cow’, but a’ bhò ‘the cow’).


This answer was so helpful! Hope you dont mind that i screen-shotted it.


So when you're talking TO ppl, it's "a charaid" and when you're taking ABOUT ppl it's "a caraid"?


There is not a way to add accent marks, as there is in the French in Duolingo.


WINDOWS: If you are on Windows you can modify the keyboard settings (press the Windows key, then type "keyboard", then select "Edit Language and Keyboard options" from the list). The extended UK keyboard or Scottish Gaelic Keyboard will work. Once installed, you should get an option next to the clock that allows you to change language/keyboard setting at will. Once you select the UK Extended Keyboard or Scottish Gaelic keyboard, then when you press the back-tick ` prior to a letter with an accent it gains the accent when you press the subsequent letter. e.g `+a = à, `+e = è, etc.

ANDROID/IPHONE: If you are on iPhone or Android you can long press a letter on the keyboard (standard keyboards, if you install a third party keyboard it may do something else) then extra versions will appear above the key that you can select. The vowel with grave accent is usually the first in the list for my iPhone.


On a Mac laptop, hold down the vowel, then choose the diacritical you want by either mousing over it or pressing the number that corresponds to it.


I thought móran taing meant thank you very much?


Accents are not available on script


Sometimes "tapadh leat" is pronounced like "tah-pe late", but in other times it sounds like "ta-pe leat", which one is correct?


Both. It’s just regional variance of the strength of preaspiration.

c, t, and p at the end of a syllable in Scottish Gaelic often are preaspirated, ie. pronounced as if written chg, chd, chb or hg, hd, hb – with a ch /x/ or h /h/ sound before them – but the strength of the preaspiration differs in different regions. Most speakers will strongly preaspirate c (so mac son will commonly sound as if machg), but t will often have weaker preaspiration, and many speaker will have only slight preaspiration of p or no at all.

See this article on the Akerbeltz wiki: http://www.akerbeltz.org/index.php?title=Pre-aspiration_or_What_the_h_in_mac_is_about

and this on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Gaelic_phonology_and_orthography#Preaspiration

Both give a rough map of the regional differences.

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