"Welcome and thank you, grandfather!"
Translation:Fàilte agus tapadh leibh a sheanair!
Does anyone know why "sheanair" takes the vocative particle, but "athair" in this lesson doesn't? It's implied they're both being spoken directly to, which should call for the vocative particle "a", and, I assume, both "grandfather" and "father" are masculine nouns, though I could be wrong. What am I missing?
athair is taking the vocative. It's just not marked in writing because of its spelling.
Gaelic doesn't like vowel to vowel contact from one word to another so avoids it if it can. The a particle has actually been absorbed by athair because athair starts with an a. So instead of a athair it's just athair. Athair also doesn't slendarise because it already has a slender ending.
My family did not speak much Gaelic but my experience growing up in a Gaelic community suggested that "tapadh leibh" was always used when speaking to someone older than you, family or not - though I think saying "tapadh leat" was often let by when talking to a direct relative like a mother or father however doing so to a grandparent was considered very disrispectful.
Henath (or hjenath but I don't hear a j.)
Here's what I've put together so far on pronunciation -- be aware that it's not complete and also pronunciation changes from island to island.
The accent is always on the first syllable of a word. Dipthongs aren't consistent.
A final g is soft ck. t is often more like a hard ch or the t in "nation" mh = v bh = v "nne" == "n-nyeh", elongating 2nd n and pronouncing the e. Two consonants sometimes have an invisible vowel == AL-a-ba. Th and sh are often silent or h -- they´re h when an "h" sound is needed between two vowels.
B is soft -- b/p unaspirated.
Slender vowels change the pronunciation of some of the consonants that they´re next to: Broad vowels are: a,o,u Slender vowels are: e,i.
*Vowels can't change from broad to slender across a consonant -- so, ela NO, elea YES. This so you ONLY ever have two slender vowels or two broad vowels next to your consonant(s) BUT it means you sometimes have silent vowels, that are there just to match the slender or broad consonant on the other side.
Slender vowels change the consonant sounds of the five consonants c,d,dh,r,s, THUS: | c | d | dh | r | s | | c->ch | d->j /ch | dh->y | r->th | S->sh |
Some examples: Seo -> Sheo (This is); Gàidhlig -> Gaiyligk (Gaelic): idir -> edith (at all); taiges -> taigesih (haggis); uisge -> uishge (water); a mhàthair -> a vathaith (o mother); a athair -> a athaith (o father) ; a bhràithair -> a vraithith (o brother); a sheanair -> a henith (o grandfather); a tidseir -> a tisheith (o teacher); tìoraidh -> tcheriy (bye -- or cheerio)