"Thank you, friend."
Translation:Tapadh leat a charaid.
Gaelic changes nouns depending on how they are being used in the sentence. English mostly doesn't do this, but many languages do. This is called "declension" and the different uses are called "cases". So the noun changes depending on whether you are talking about the person or talking to the person. "Caraid" is the nominative case which is used for talking about someone. "A charaid" is the vocative case which is used for talking to someone.
I'm sure the Tips & Notes will eventually explain how to create the vocative from the nominative, but basically, you put "a" before the noun and "h" after the initial consonant. So "Màiri" becomes "a Mhàiri".
For masculine nouns that do not already have an "i" before the final consonant (or consonant cluster) an "i" is added. So "Calum" becomes "a Chaluim". "Caraid" already has an i there, so it only gets the "a" and "h" to become "a charaid".
For nouns that start with a vowel, no "a" or "h" are added. So to call out to "Anna", you still just say, "Anna".
If the "h" causes the initial consonant to be silent (like with "fh") then the a is not used. To get "Fionnlagh"'s attention, you would call him "Fhionnlaigh."
Here at the beginning of the course, they are trying to spare you the complicated details of Gaelic declensions by just trying to have you memorize the different uses.
It changes depending on the letter. th usually sounds like an English h (except in thu where the th is silent). fh is silent. mh and bh both sound much like an English v. dh tends to sound like either an English y or an English g. ch sounds like a raspy h. There may be others I haven't covered and even the above can have variations depending on the surrounding letters. Listen carefully to the audio as you do the course to learn how to pronounce the lenited letters (the letters with h following).
Thanks. It's good to see them written down like that. I'm getting there slowly and starting to hear the differences between say bheag and beag. I'm glad I asked the original question at I'm now on level 1 and lots more h's are showing up. Shame they never explain why though. It would make it so much easier.
This was all sounding great to me since these rules are the same in Irish, until you got to the vowel bit! In Irish we ad a 'h' before a vowel/fh in vocative. So addressing Eoin it's 'a hEoin', or in your example Anna would be a 'a hAnna'. I wonder how/why this was lost in Gàidhlig?
It's actually used in the vocative case, so if I were going to translate with an English word at all, I might use "hey". But "hey" only sounds good when you put the vocative at the front. It's best just not to translate it at all when the vocative is at the back. I have a Gaelic grammar book from 1778 that translates the vocative with "O (name/noun)". That's a bit archaic in English now, but works ok in whatever position.
In his introduction, with regards to Irish, Mr. Shaw says, "On the Iberno-Galic there have been written grammars by different hands. The Scots and Irish Galic, though not radically different, are two separate dialects of the same language. The words are almost always the same, but differently orthographied. The Irish, in their grammars, have a more uncertain and various inflection in the termination, which the Scotch Galic has not; and this inclines me to think the Scotch is the original, and that this inflection of termination in Irish grammars is the mark of an attempt by the monks to polish it, after the manner of the Greek and Latin."