"There are many paintings in the museum."
Translation:'angweDDaq law' naghmey beQ.
I’m sure I’m missing something basic here, but why is there no tu’lu’ in this sentence?
Edit to add: Also, would a sentence using tu’lu’ ever be appropriate? And if so, would that change the placement of law’? For whatever reason, law’ continues to give me occasional trouble.
'angweDDaq nagh beQ law' tu'lu' (and variations thereof) is accepted as an alternate translation of this sentence. English prefers to use "many" as a direct determiner on the things that there are many of and not as a copula ("to be many"). The more direct translation of the Klingon translation given above by Duolingo is, "The paintings are many in the museum." This is grammatically acceptable in English, but it sounds very odd, because English doesn't like to use "many" like that. However Klingon prefers to use all of the "adjectival verbs" as verbs whenever possible. So while English prefers to say, "There are many paintings," Klingon prefers to say law' nagh beQ ("The paintings are many").
This happens with other adjectives/adjectival verbs, too:
"There are big buildings in the city." vengDaq tIn qach ("The buildings are big in the city.")
"They have delicious food at that restaurant." Qe'vetlhDaq 'ey Soj ("The food is delicious at that restaurant.")
"There are fierce warriors on this planet." yuQvamDaq qu' SuvwI'pu' ("The wariors are fierce on this planet.")
Not that you should never use tu'lu' for these kinds of sentence, but by using tu'lu' you make this sentence about finding whatever thing has that description. Whever you find your self trying to translate, "There is/are [adjective] [thing(s)]..." Ask yourself questions like the following:
Is my point to talk about where to find many paintings or to point out that there are a lot of them there?
Is my point to talk about where the big buildings are or to stress the bigness of the buildings there?
Am I trying to say where you can find delicious food or am I trying to describe the food at that restaurant?
Am I talking about finding fierce warriors or am I trying to say that the warriors are fierce there?
I hope that helps, but please feel free to ask more questions.
"There are big buildings in the city." vengDaq tIn qach ("The buildings are big in the city.") "They have delicious food at that restaurant." Qe'vetlhDaq 'ey Soj ("The food is delicious at that restaurant.") "There are fierce warriors on this planet." yuQvamDaq qu' SuvwI'pu' ("The wariors are fierce on this planet.")
None of these examples work. There are big buildings in the city says that you'll find big buildings in the city, but it doesn't describe all the city's buildings as big. vengDaq tIn qach, on the other hand, says either that one building in the city is big or pretty much all the buildings in the city are big. It doesn't allow for some buildings being big and some being small, which the English does. On the other hand, vengDaq qachmey tIn tu'lu' There are big buildings in the city DOES match the English.
The same analysis holds for the others. They have delicious food at that restaurant doesn't preclude having non-delicious food at the restaurant, but Qe'vetlhDaq 'ey Soj The food at that restaurant is delicious does. There are fierce warriors on this planet doesn't preclude there being non-fierce warriors on the planet, but yuQvamDaq qu' SuvwI'pu' The warriors are fierce on this planet does.
So there are times when you want to use tu'lu' in preference to a verb of quality. When the English there is or there are doesn't try to establish a single class of thing among others, as in there are many paintings in the museum (doesn't preclude a class of few paintings), using a Klingon verb of quality is appropriate. When the English does establish a class of things among others, Klingon tu'lu', which does the same thing, is better.
David's analysis does add helpful nuance (to me). I haven't progressed much beyond "Yoda-speak" (if that makes sense)," and I imagine that if I ever did encounter a Klingon, I would be considered a weak-minded person, or at best, "brutish;" if I were understood at at all. But then I remind myself that "Most Klingons will never know the difference," and I find encouragement in this.