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you need to learn 3, actually. you (singular/informal) is 'du'. you (plural/informal) is 'ihr' (in subject form only, as an object pronoun 'ihr' means 'her'). then the Formal form of 'you' is 'Sie' (always capitalise, hence, formal) so.
speaking to one close friend "you're good", "du bist gut" speaking to some close friends 'you're good', "ihr seid gut' speaking to, say, mother "you're good", "Sie sind gut" (I assume that adjectives don't change upon formality, I'm only beginner myself)
In English, there is no formality aspect to our pronouns (except MAYBE 'one'). We also USED to have separate singular and plural 'you' (you was PL. thou was S), but we collapsed them, so only one form of the second person pronoun.
I don't think so, /zeit/ corresponds to the preposition seit (since), /zeid/ for seid (you are) is rather correct. Don't mistake /zeit/ by Zeit (time), word which is pronounced /tzeit/.
Think of it like this:
You use Ihr when refering to a group of people that includes the person/people that you are speaking to.
You would use "Sie" (they) when speaking about a group of people that does not include the person/people that you are speaking to.
In german, if the end of a word ends with "Er" it gets shortened to sound like just the e. So yeah, Männer sounds a lot like Männe
Don't forget umlauts
How can I recognize in a conversation the difference of "Er" and "Ihr" if they both sound like the same thing?
In "Er" the "e" letter is pronounced like "a" so it would sound like "aia" ,as you pronounce the "e" in the word "error" . while in "Ihr" the letter "I" is pronounced like double "e" so it would sound like "eeia" , as you pronounce the letter "e" in the word "ear" and note that "h" in "ihr" is silent. That's it, hope you find that useful :)
"seid" is second person plura of "sein"l: for when you're addressing more than one person. "sind" is first and third person plural of "sein", and also gets used in formal sentences where they say "Sie sind" instead of "du bist". So:
- "Ich bin ein Mann": I am a man [1st person singular]
- "Du bist ein Mann": You are a man [2nd person singular, informal]
- "Sie sind ein Mann": You are a man [2nd person singular, formal]
- "Er ist ein Mann.": He is a man [3rd person singular]
- "Wir sind Männer": We are men [1st person plural]
- "Ihr seid Männer": You are men [2nd person plural, informal]
- "Sie sind Männer": You are men [2nd person plural, formal]
- "Sie sind Männer": They are men [3rd person plural]
And yes, the last two are supposed to be exactly the same. You would usually be able to tell which is meant by the context, or occasionally by the capital 'S' showing up. For a really obnoxious example:
- "Ich sage daß sie sind Männer, und Sie sind Männer": I say that they are men, and you are men.
- "Ich sage daß Sie sind Männer, und sie sind Männer": I say that you are men, and they are men.