"You need a bonnet."
Translation:Feumaidh tu bonaid.
The normal way to say you need something does begin with tha. Most people, and all dictionaries I know, think that the structure in this sentence is not correct as feumaidh means 'need to', not 'need'. There are differing opinions, but I would ignore this structure and wait until you learn the standard one later.
What distinction does feumaidh have that the sentence is not constructed the same as some others? In other sentences you might say "Tha thu ag iarraidh bonaid" or "Tha sibh a' ceannach bonaid." Does feumaidh have different rules because it's stating a condition, not an action? I'm interested in why it's not phrased as "you are needing a bonnet".
That's a really good question so I hope someone can answer it, but here are a couple of points. Firstly, iarraidh 'wanting' is also a condition so there does not seem to be a meaning-based explanation.
Secondly, not all verbs are the same in English, so why should they be in Gaelic. Why do we say I am enjoying but I like? These are both conditions just like wanting. Who knows?
Thirdly, feum is a defective verb. That means there are bits missing - it has no verbal noun, the equivalent of iarraidh, so they would simply have had to find a different structure. Of course it could be the other way round - it could be that it has no verbal noun because it was not used.
There is only a very small number of verbs in Gaelic that use this simple form like fumaidh and like to state current condition. Feumaidh is technically the future tense, because there is no present tense, but what it would have been in the distant past, when there were more tenses I have no idea.
The word is actually more common as a noun than a verb - I can find the noun in both Old and Modern Irish, but I cannot find a verb - it is not listed as the Irish translation of need. Further, although this verb exists in Gaelic, it is not actually the usual way to say you need something in my experience or any dictionary I can find, as I discuss above. Rather I would normally use the noun,
Tha feum agad air bonaid Is need at you on [a] bonnet
so it may be that the verbal use is quite new.
The usual use is when followed by a verb (in a complicated structure not covered yet), such as 'I need to buy a bonnet'. Perhaps we use the future tense because it is expressing what you are going to do in the future. The purchase will clearly be in the future - even in English you can say 'I will need (to buy) a bonnet'.
I am looking forward to someone explaining. D
I agree that is what the notes say:
A 'bonnet' or 'bunnet' is a type of functional but stylish woollen flat cap. The Gaelic for this is bonaid. The bonnet is a key part of a school of fashion we have just made up called "crofter chic".
but I think it is more complicated than that because the word bonnet had a much wider meaning in the past, which means that if a dictionary says that bonaid = bonnet then bonaid also had a wider meaning. I think we can assume that the meaning of bonaid is changing and that different people will use it differently. There is more discussion on this page, including me giving other uses of bonaid.
Joanne says on another question that they accept hat, so I hope they do on all questions that are into English.
Your version is just as valid, if you spell it correctly, so the next person this happens to should report it as 'my answer should be accepted.'
However your answer is one letter out, as it should be sibh not shibh. That should count as a typo not an error. As far a I know sibh is never lenited under any circumstances.