Your question could potentially open Pandora's box depending on where you ask it. Since you probably already know the arguments in favor of the law, the main argument against it is - because that will essentially increase everybody's premiums. At least that's what the politicians who are against it campaign on.
Because of the law, the insurance companies have to make profits without charging some people (who are more at risk because of pre-existing conditions) higher premiums, so they're gonna spread the cost around.
Duolingo suggested both "disease" and "illness" as translations for die Krankheit, with "disease" being the recommended answer. In this context, the two aren't interchangeable. I would interpret "The illness is new" to mean the patient's condition has changed -- that they have come down with an illness they didn't previously have. As others have wittily pointed out, "The disease is new" suggests the disease itself has never been seen before.
Which meaning does the German sentence have?