Translation:He holds the diseases responsible.
"Hold someone/something responsible" is actually a common saying in English. For example - "I hold you responsible for the car accident". "Verantwortlich machen" is the translation of that saying and so the example sentence that I mentioned would translate as "Ich mache dich für den Autounfall verantwortlich". I hope this helps!
You said it yourself. Hold someone responsible is one thing. The whole discussion for this phrase it because someone is trying to hold something responsible. And that makes no sense at all. Is like killing someone with a gun and trying to hold the gun responsible. The disease also doesn’t do anything alone. Like the situation we’re all living right now. Someone spread the virus, which only tries to spread. But someone had to start it somehow.
I think it is supposed to mean "he holds the disease reponsible": http://www.dict.cc/deutsch-englisch/jdn+f%C3%BCr+etw+verantwortlich+machen.html
Native speaker: this sounds really strange in English, should be fixed imho. It sounds like he's going to put the disease on trial or something. Maybe if it had more context (e.g., "He holds the diseases responsible for the patient's health")
Also what's with the downvotes? Trolls who just downvote everything?
How would you say "He holds responsibility for the diseases"/"He is held responsible for the diseases"?
"Er macht für die Krankheiten verantwortung."?
, or maybe a reflexive statement: "He (himself) is responsible for the diseases" = "Er ist sich selbst für die Krankheiten verantwortlich"?
What about a slightly different sentence: "He holds himself responsible for the diseases" = "Er macht sich selbst für die Krankheiten verantwortlich"?
The first one: Er trägt die Verantwortung für die Krankheiten. (In German, you "carry" the responsibility for something.)
Your second would be Er selbst ist für die Krankheiten verantwortlich.
The third one is fine as is, i.e. he puts the blame for the diseases on himself.
The closest I can come up with us 'he blames his illness'. I imagine someone sitting down all day for example, and maybe someone saying 'why doesn't he go for a walk?' And someone else saying 'he just won't get up at all. He blames his illness'
I am a native English speaker, but my German really isn't great, so other views welcome!
zuständig is something like "it's in my job description to do this".
For example, at a party, you might have one person who is zuständig for barbecuing the food and one who serves the drinks. That's what they are supposed to do; it's their job.
But if somebody drops a glass, they are responsible for the glass breaking but it wasn't their job: they are verantwortlich but not zuständig.
Similarly here: diseases aren't really appointed to a job.
There is not necessarily a simple answer to that.
Here is a link that discusses German prefixes. Scroll down to the part about Inseparable Prefixes to find some information about "ver-"