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What's the difference between 's e ur beatha and 's e do bheatha? I can't work out the reasoning.
"'S e do bheatha" is informal
"'S e ur beatha" is formal/polite and you use it here because it's someone much older than yourself
Almost. As with most European languages, Gàidhlig has "T-V distinction".
'Do' relates to 'thu'; you/r singular, informal.
'Ur' relates to 'sibh'; you/r plural, singular formal.
Also note that 'do' lenites.
What is the direct translation? Does beatha mean life?
Aye, it does. Literally, it is "It's your life". The history is obscure, but boils down to an Old Irish phrase wishing long life on the listener.