"The sausage is hot."
Translation:Tha an t-isbean teth.
Later you will find that an had several meanings but for now it always means 'the'. Here it is an t- which always means 'the' anyway.
Tha means 'am/is/are'.
Provided the sentence has a verb, it will always be at the beginning, so tha goes first.
You may be confused because in some of the sentences you have seen it is not clear what each word means from the English translation. This is a common problem on this course as the design can make it difficult for them to make it clear. But this sentence is simple. It is exactly the same as the English except that they have, as always, put the verb at the beginning.
This is a good question and it is highly complicated by the fact that if you list the specific circumstances then that list changes as you learn more Gaelic. But the method I give here is future proof.
We assume you know when an would change to a' and cause lenition (insertion of the h) if the next word begins with a suitable letter, such as a c. (Of course this is the future-proofing bit as you will learn more about this later.) Well there are now two situations:
When the an would not cause lenition anyway but the word begins with a vowel:
When the an would cause lenition, and the word begins with an s
As far as what you have learnt so far is concerned, isbean would not lenite even if it started with a c because it is masculine but oifis would because it is feminine.
The historical explanation is that it was originally part of the an. It has been lost in most situations but not all. The reason for the modern spelling is beyond comprehension if you consider only Gaelic, but can be understood a bit if you look at Irish spelling.
As I said the main complication is that there are a number of uses that you won't have met yet. When you meet a new use, just make a mental note of whether it is leniting things or not. For the moment we have
- Masculine singular article does not lenite, so we have an cat.
- Feminine singular definite article does lenite, so we have a' chathair.
Remember you can apply the logic either way round. If you know the gender you can work out the lenition, but just as important, you can use it to revise the gender of nouns every time you meet a clue such as the lenition.
However, there are traps around that you will slowly get used to. The feminine singular article does not lenite d or t, and s does not lenite at all when followed by certain letters.