"James has a blue table."
Translation:Tha bòrd gorm aig Seumas.
Looking for rules is good, and as with all languages (even English, though it's a nightmare of competing rules and exceptions) have them (it's what grammar is).
In this case, to answer you, no the subject precedes the object. The subject here is the table, however. "Tha bòrd gorm" [(a) blue table is] "aig Seumas" [at James], i.e. "James has a blue table (near him / in his possession)"