Well they use a random set of sentences in each language, so let us hope it is just chance that there are no good husbands in the Celtic courses. I have found these in other languages
- "Maritus cotidie sacrificat." Translation:The husband sacrifices daily.
- in the Latin context this is a very good husband
- "Byls velmi dobrý manžel." Translation:You were a very good husband.
- The commentors aren't sure how to take this one
- "On byłby dobrym mężem." Translation:He would be a good husband.
- "My husband is a good man." Translation:Meu marido é um bom homem.
- "He is a good husband." Translation:Hän on hyvä mies.
- "My husband is a good man." Translation:Mi esposo es un buen hombre.
- "My husband is a good man." Translation:Mon mari est un homme bon.
- It looks as if the Poertugese and Spanish courses are copies of each other. There seem to be lots of duplicate sentences. They even discuss on the Portugese one if you can use esposo instead of marido. Perhaps the French is as well. They discuss the odd word order - otherwise all three would be almost identical.
Some sentences aren't so sure
- "Pikirkan suami yang baik." Translation:Think of a good husband.
- "It is impossible to find a good husband." Translation:Det er umulig å finne en god ektemann.
- "Is Matěj a good husband?" Translation:Je Matěj dobrý manžel?
- "hezký muž" Translation:handsome man
- "Kateřina považuje Františka za dobrého muže." Translation:Kateřina considers František a good man.
- "Você é meu futuro esposo." Translation:You are my future husband.
- "My husband reads manga every day." Translation:夫は毎日マンガを読みます。
- The comment suggests this is a good husband
- "My husband is a good accountant." Translation:زَوْجي مُحاسِب جَيِّد.
The nearest we get in Welsh is
Of course! How could I forget Cymraeg! Probably because I have not practiced in about a year. (Yikes! Mea Culpa. )
I notice with a lot of the sentences, that they mention someone is a good man, as if that were a definable thing, but when speaking of women, it's more likely to talk about a good wife, but not a good woman. Or at least I have not come across it so far.
Sorry to drag the discussion into linguistic treatment of men vs women in general instead of Gàidhlig specifically.
All Western languages are adapting to a rapidly changing social environment, so this is an important issue. It is bad enough trying to be non-gender biased in one language, but when you try to use a different language, that has different cultural issues opposing different linguistic issues, things get really complicated. You may already have seen that some words are gendered in English and not in Gaelic, and vice versa. It just happens that it is much easier in Gaelic than in English to replace any word with fear with one with neach (I think this is because neach is one syllable).
You may also have seen the claims that in some Gaelic dialects the two sorts of possessive are applied in reverse for women. Each language has its own problem. I believe there are some oriental languages where this simply does not happen, or happens lexically rather than grammatically.
You may also be aware that words such as bean and boireannach do not match up exactly with any masculine words - see my other comment on this page. D
Put at its simplest, the h is inserted to mark a sound change called lenition. This happens to words beginning with most consonants when they directly follow certain other words, or classes of words. You don't learn these all at once, but gradually throughout the course.
The first causes of lenition you meet are
- the feminine singular definite article (usually) - a' bhean
- feminine singular nouns - bean mhath
- a, which is put before a name when you are speaking to someone - a Mhàiri
It won't surprise you that bean is feminine, but you generally have to learn the gender of every noun, just as in French or German.
If you haven't found the notes already, then you can click on the 'Tips' button just as you are starting an exercise (not on the app) or you can find the whole lot here. I suggest you bookmark that. You can search for the word lenition in it, but don't try to learn it all at once.
This is a very complicated situation because social attitudes have changed a lot in the last 1000 years, and even more in the last 100 years, so all languages are struggling to adapt. First of all we had formalization of marriage, then gender equality, which meant the old system where classification of females did not mirror that of males had to be modified. Then you had a demand for gender-neutral terminology. Then you had orientation-neutral terminology.
1000 years ago, marriage would have been pretty informal, unless you were reasonably high born. Bean (old spelling ben) would have meant a woman in general or the woman you lived with, and fear a man in general or the man you lived with. Gradually these came to be treated as translations of 'wife' and 'husband'. However, when I say 'woman' and 'man' that really meant old enough to marry. There would have been separate terms for what we would call adolescents (which finished perhaps five or more years later than it does now).
Duine basically means a person (non-gender specific) and always has done, but for some reason it came to mean 'man' or 'husband' (i.e. the same as fear) in Scotland. It is now being brought back as the gender-neutral term for a person because of the need for such a word. But it retains its masculine sense only when used as 'my man' i.e. 'my husband'. See the definitions in Gaelic, Irish and Old Irish here.
As terms became necessary to include people of both marriageable and pre-marriageable age, many languages just extended the existing terms, bean, fear, duine, woman, but for some reason, in Gaelic only, bean got stuck as predominantly meaning 'wife', or at least not including younger, unmarried women; another word boireannach (something feminine, hence neuter, hence masculine in modern Gaelic) came to be used to mean 'woman' in the modern sense.
So, having made things very complicated, bean still means a woman in Irish, but in Gaelic, although it technically means 'woman' (see most dictionaries), as well as 'wife', its use has become more and more restricted to 'wife', as boireannach takes over. Duine, increasingly means 'person', as it used to, except in an duine agam 'my man, my husband'.
Did you want a simple answer? D