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  5. "DIvI' lupIch SuvwI'pu'."

"DIvI' lupIch SuvwI'pu'."

Translation:The warriors blame the Federation.

March 6, 2020



There's no audio when you tap on the words... There should be, right?


We are still adding audio to the course, so it will be missing on some words.


Could someone explain to me how the prefix 'lu' modifies the verb? As in, why is the sentence DIvI' pIch SuvwI'pu' incorrect?


The prefix lu- is a special inconsistency in the language. All natural languages have inconsistencies in them, but it is unusual to include inconsistencies in constructed languages. Since Dr. Okrand was constructing a language which was supposed to be like a natural language, he added some inconsistencies (some were added because of errors by the actors, which seems a very natural way to allow those inconsistencies to be there). When the subject and object are both third person, we usually use the null prefix (i.e. the absence of a prefix), but with one exception - if the subject is plural and the object is singular, then you have to use lu-. Since it breaks the normal pattern, it does make things a little more complex and difficult, but remember this not Vulcan, this is Klingon - it's not always going to be logical and it will present you with challenges.

Your sentence DIvI' pIch SuvwI'pu' can only mean, "The warriors blame the federations." Since the plural suffix -pu' tells us that the subject is plural, the lack of -lu' tells us that the object cannot be singular, and thus, even though DIvI' is not marked with a plural suffix, it must be plural. Similarly, the same sentence without any plural markers (DIvI' pIch SuvwI'), could be used for a variety of combinations of singularity/plurality: "The warriors blame the federations." "The warrior blames the Federation." "The warrior blames the federations." The one thing the sentence cannot mean (because it lacks the prefix lu-) is "The warriors blame the Federation."

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