Hello. Is there any way that this course could include long marks over the words used, at least in the vocabulary lists in the "tips" sections? It would help me a lot with remembering how to pronounce the individual words as well as with distinguishing between the second and third conjugations.
Also, in the Tips section of "School" under "Third Conjugation", it says that "you can recognize these verbs by the lack of a vowel at the end of the verb stem"; could someone please clarify that?
Not sure what they're getting at, about the Third Conjugation. A simple way to teach the four conjugations of regular verbs, to beginning students, which requires long marks, is as follows:
if the present infinitive (listed as the SECOND "principal part") ends in -āre, it's a FIRST Conjugation verb: like portō, portāre, to carry
If the present infinitive ends in -ēre, it's SECOND conj: habeō, habēre, to have
If the present infinitive ends in -ere, it's THIRD conj: dūcō, dūcere, to lead
If the present infinitive ends in -īre, it's FOURTH conj: audiō, audīre, to hear
In Allen & Greenough's Latin Grammar, I read that "The Present Stem is formed from the Root in all regular verbs in one of the following ways: -- a.). In the First, Second, and Fourth conjugations, by adding a long vowel (ā- , ē- , ī- , ) to the root, whose vowel is sometimes changed: as, vocā-re (VOC), monē-re (MEN, cf. meminī), sopī-re (SOP). ... b) In the Third Conjugation, by adding a short vowel e/o to the root. In Latin, this e/o usually appears as i/u, but e is preserved in some forms. Thus, tegi-s (root TEG), ali-tis (AL), regu-nt (REG); but tege-ris (tege-re), ale-ris. ..." that's from section 176 on page 86.
Probably better to say that there is a SHORT vowel (seen in the infinitive, as for example dūcere (SHORT ere)) before the personal endings (-ō, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt) in the 3rd conj. The other 3 conjugations have a long vowel (note that long vowels are shortened before the endings -t, -nt, and -ō (where they are sometimes lost altogether)).