Grammar: The Dutch Alphabet & Pronunciation


  1. The Dutch alphabet
  2. Dutch pronunciation
  3. Vowels and Diphthongs
  4. Consonants

1. The Dutch alphabet

Our modern Dutch alphabet simply consists of the 26 letters of the ‘ISO basic Latin alphabet’. We have about five vowels and twenty-one consonants. Whereas the letter E/e is the most frequently used letter in our language, the letters Q and X are used least frequently.

Here you can find two introductory videos, part 1 and part 2.

So, the Dutch alphabet has 26 letters - just like in English. In fact, you don’t have to learn any new letters! Hurrah!

2. Dutch pronunciation

However, as with any new language, there are going to be quite a few differences and peculiarities in pronunciation. Some letters are simply pronounced differently, and there can be combinations that may throw you for a loop. Don't worry, we're here to help!

3.Vowels and Diphthongs

The way Dutch vowels sound depends on whether they are in open or closed syllables.

A syllable is closed if it in a consonant sandwich (e.g. “bed”) and open if not (e.g. “ga”).

Instead of trying to explain the English equivalents of each vowel sound, it may be easier to check out this website.

In Dutch, in addition to the vowels “a”, “e”, “i”, “o”, “u”, and “y”, there are a number of diphthongs.

  • "oe" sounds like the "oo" in "tooth"
  • "eu" sounds like the "ay" in day with rounded lips, or like the "eu" in the French word "feu"
  • "ei/ij": these sounds are like a combination of "eh" and "ee", similar to the "ay" in "day"
  • "ui" is tricky, but can be described as a short "a" sound followed by a "u" sound. It is difficult to explain and understand in words, so listening and practicing to the audio in the link below can help.
  • "uw" is a long Dutch "u" sond with a slight "w" sound
  • "ou" and "au" sound similar to the "ou" in "loud"
  • "aai" sounds like a long "a" sound followed by a long "i"
  • "eeuw" long "e" sound followed by the "uw" diphthong from above
  • "ooi" long "o" sound followed by a long "i"
  • "oei" combination of "oe" and "ie" ("ie" is pronounced the same as a long "i")
  • "ieuw" long "ie" followed by "uw"

Here is a link to some audio for diphthongs

4. Consonants

The consonants in Dutch – b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, z – are not too different from the consonants in English. You also have “ch”, “ck”, “ng”, “nj”, “sch”, “sj” and “tj”.

The major differences are the “g”, “j”, “r”, and “w”.


The “g” sound is not found in English. It sounds akin to coughing up a loogie, but I’d like to think it’s quite a bit more elegant.

The sound is made when air passes through an opening made in the back of the throat where the tongue and uvula (the dangly thing in the back of your mouth) meet. This is around the same area where your tongue and the roof of your mouth meet when making the English “g” sound.

If you are familiar with German pronunciation, the Dutch “g” sound is like the “ch” sound in the word “Dach”.

Check out this great video for an explanation.

In some foreign words, the “g” is pronounced as it is in the language the word was borrowed from.


The “j” sound in Dutch is straightforward – it is essentially the “y” sound as in the English word “you”. . ”r”

Then there’s the “r” in Dutch. There are several ways of pronouncing it. How should you pronounce it?

The first option is to roll your “r” using the tip of your tongue. Some people even just tap it instead of doing a sustained roll.

Another option is a more guttural “r”, once again using the uvula as with the “g” sound. It can be quite difficult to roll your r’s using this method, but with a lot of practice it can be learned.

Both of these “r” sounds come at the beginning or middle of words and sometimes at the end, but a lot of Dutch people pronounce the “r” kind of like an American “r” at the end of a word.

For a live clarification, check out another video from the same helpful Youtube user.


The Dutch “w” is not pronounced exactly like “w” in English, nor like a “v” sound.

The “w” in Dutch is actually called a “labiodental approximant” (ooh fancy!).

It is a bit like pronouncing the English “w” while having your teeth in lips in the same position as when pronouncing the English consonant “v”.

Video explanation

Consonant combos!

A quick explanation of “ch”, “ck”, “ng”, “nj”, “sch”, “sj” and “tj”.

  • “ch” is pronounced like the Dutch “g”
  • “ck” is pronounced as a “k” sound
  • “ng” is like the “ng” in the English “sing”
  • “nj” is kind of like the “n” in “onion” or for you language buffs out there like the Spanish “ñ”
  • “sch” is often a combination of “s” and “ch” (as a “g” sound), but can also be pronounced as an “s” at the end of a word, for example “fantastisch”
  • “sj” is pronounced like the English “sh” sound
  • "tj” is pronounced like the English “ch” sound, but softer

Return to Grammar Overview!

July 16, 2014

This discussion is locked.

Just my two cents on my Flemish pronunciation, but I pronounce 'aai' (and 'ooi') as 'aaj', not 'aa-ie', and 'eeuw' as 'ee-w', not 'ee-uw' (same for 'ieuw'). Also 'ou' sounds more like 'ohw' in English for me and my 'w' is just like the English 'w'.

July 28, 2014

Here is a helpful website I found with thousands of pronunciations:

February 9, 2018

If ij isn't considered a letter, then why do we need to capitalize the j as well? It would've kinda made sense if it were just one letter (didn't it originate in ÿ or something?)

July 17, 2014

Because it's the exception to the rule :) I have to admit I can't really find a good answer to the question. I did find a relation to characters like the œ, which is also often written as oe but still capitalised as one.

July 17, 2014

This is because it's a digraph, a combination of two letters, but not necessary a letter in itself. It's considered a letter by most people, but isn't technically. In fact, in Flanders it's not uncommon to see 'Ij' instead of 'IJ' (IJzer <> Ijzer).

September 21, 2014

Yeah... just when I was starting to get the sounds for English, Italian and French properly.

A doubt - is "g" pronounced like Spanish g in "trigo", like Spanish j in "Juan" or is it different?

July 18, 2014

It's closest to the j in Juan. It's not exactly the same and may sound quite different depending on which part of the country you're in (soft g in the south, hard g in the north), but it's a good starting point for learning the pronounciation!

July 20, 2014

I finally figured out how to pronounce "ui" (at least closer than what I was before).

First, in IPA terms: I start with the diphthong /aɪ̯/ and both round and velarize it. That's how I get the closest sound.

For those that don't know the IPA, a "velarized open front unrounded vowel" is closest to an English long i (as in the word "like"). Make that sound and hold it, and while doing that try and round your lips into the shape of an O. It shouldn't be too small, but you should notice right away that the sound changes just by changing the shape of your mouth.

Thanks a bunch for putting all these grammar threads up! They've been a huge help.

July 20, 2014

Is it just my imagination, or do vowels sound a little different when followed immediately by an "r"? I'm thinking of words like "vader," "bord," "haar," or "aardbei." Or maybe it's the "r" that sounds different. I can't really tell, but something sounds different! ;-)

July 17, 2014

The "aa" sounds the same (compare "haar" and "aap"). And there's a difference between the "o" in "bord" and the "o" in "bomen", for example, the first one is pronounced short, the second long. But that has to do with the number of (the same) consonants a vowel is followed by and it's place in a word and not the "r". Apart from that I don't know any differences!

July 22, 2014

Is there a softer g/ch sound, for example at the end of a word (like grappig), like in the German "ich", "Küche"? Or do you always pronounce it like in the German "Dach"? I believe in Belgium the g sound is generally softer, but how about the Netherlands? And are there occasions where you pronounce "st" and "sp" like sht/shp as is the case in German Start, Sport, sprechen (which you pronounce Shtart, Shport, shprechen)? I think I heard spreken being said as shpreken didn't I? Thanks for your help! :)

July 17, 2014

In the southern part of the Netherlands people mostly use dialects which sound like German, which might explain what you heard, but it's not common!

July 22, 2014

I find the computerized voice seems to pronounce the "a" in "sap" as "aa". Is it just me, is this a glitch or is this how it's supposed to be pronounced? I would have expected the "a" in this word to sound like the "a" in "man", not as in "maan".

July 26, 2014

The 'a' in 'sap' is pronounced like the 'a' in 'man', I don't know what the computerised voice sounds like!

July 26, 2014

I tried with another voice, the one on this site:

The 'a' in 'sap' is pronounced like the 'a' in 'man' with this voice. Phew! :)

Thanks for your comment, lievevonken.

July 26, 2014

"eeuw" and "ieuw" transcribe triphthongs, not diphthongs.

July 27, 2014

Can I pronounce the 'z' as 'c' like in the German word 'Zeit'?

July 27, 2014

I don't think so. As far as I've heard and researched, z is pronounced only as a z in Dutch. Also, just a little bit of useful info for you, German z is pronounced as the affricate "ts," not c.

July 27, 2014

Thank you very much! It'll be hard to break a habit. And thanks for the correction too. I'm Hungarian and in my language 'ts' is 'c' and 'ts' is like 'ci' in 'Ciao' or 'ch' in 'chapter'. =D

July 27, 2014

No problem! And I find the differences in pronunciation between languages fascinating, so thanks for clarifying what those sound like in Hungarian. If "c" in Hungarian is sounded as "ts" then you might have been pronouncing the German "z" correctly this whole time :) No need to break any habits.

July 27, 2014

In a lot of the words, it sounds like the z is pronounced like the J in je (french) or the z in the english word pleasure. And to me, the s sounds like a sh, as it would be in english.

February 23, 2017

Ah, I see. From what I can quickly research about Dutch phonology, /s/ and /z/ are often retracted by Netherlandic speakers (so they become /ʂ/ and /ʐ/) which sound similar to /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ (the sounds you described). Which I find very interesting because I can't think of anything that would cause such retraction, especially given all of the Germanic sound laws that have affected each Germanic language. Perhaps somewhere down the line in the history of Dutch this became common. I'll have to look into it more later.

February 23, 2017

Well actually there are some German dialects where s becomes sh, like Swabian. Mostly southern German dialects

February 28, 2017

Ah, you're right! I don't know how I forgot that /ʃ/ was an actual allophone of /s/ in German. One need only look at words that have [st] or [sp] in a syllable. Now the retracted sounds make a little bit more sense, but there is still research to be had.

February 28, 2017

A doubt with the pronunciation of "Z" - In Zijn, for example, is the Z pronounced more like the Z in Zoo or more like the SI in Asian? The digital voice on Duo seems to say both.

November 24, 2014

When 'zijn' is concerned, pronouncing the 'z' as in zoo seems to be the standard, though of course this differs per region and dialect.

Here you can find a man reading aloud pieces of Dutch text. See 'De uitvreter', paragraph 2, for an example of how 'zijn' can be pronounced (click the sound icon).

November 25, 2014

Thanks for that Lavinae :) That helps a lot.

November 25, 2014

Is it just me, or are there also two "L" sounds?

Hard L - like in "lang"/" laat"/"geloven"

And soft "L" - like in "blij"/" liefde "

December 11, 2015

Various sounds are pronounced a bit stronger/harder or weaker/softer, depending on the sounds before and after them, but I wouldn't go as far as calling that different sounds. If I'm not mistaken this difference is bigger for consonants than for vowels.

For instance the examples you give, the l in blij is indeed pronounced less clearly, but still the same sound if you ask me. All the others are pronounced quite clearly (they are all the first sound of a syllable).

December 11, 2015

Ok, I'll keep an ear out.. In my native language there are 2 L's.. so I thought maybe it's the case in dutch as well.

December 12, 2015

I still wonder how some Dutch or Belgian people pronounce words like "schrijven" with an r-trill. I can only imagine leaving out a sound and pronounce it like "srijven" or something like that. Could a native speaker explain (best with a link to some sound samples)? Thanks! :)

February 21, 2017

I've been ransacking the internet for about 15 min, then I wrote this post, and the next link on the Google result list gives me all the answers. :D Just as I thought, the ch is not pronounced in "schr".

February 21, 2017

I would say leaving out the ch altogether is unusual. Normally it's not pronounced very clearly, but it's there.

August 3, 2017

Actually how do you pronounce the letter combination -tion? Thanks

August 3, 2017

It depends on the region you're from and personal preference. You can find some examples here: (by hertogh, jaaan and McDutchie, the one by Happybee isn't Dutch).

August 3, 2017

But which one is more common? s or sh? Thanks!

August 4, 2017

No idea. :) Also there is a lot of grey area in between those ways of pronouncing it.

The one thing I can say about that, is that in Belgium they usually don't pronounce the t in words like politie and station. But I have no idea if this way of pronouncing is more common in the south of the Netherlands than the north.

August 5, 2017

Thanks anyways!

August 5, 2017

Are basically "oe" and "u" the same pronunciation?

March 25, 2018
Learn Dutch in just 5 minutes a day. For free.