- je and jij are both second person singular (you), with je being unstressed and jij stressed
- jullie is the second person plural (you), so it's the plural of both je and jij. It has no stressed or unstressed form.
- u is the formal you. You use it when addressing people older than you, people of authority, etc.
- U has the shortness of the 'u' in up, but sounds closer to the 'ou' in you.
- Je has the 'j' sound of you followed by the second 'e' in ever.
- Jij also has the 'j' sound of you, followed the 'ij' sound which can be described as the first 'e' in ever immediately followed/combined with an 'i'
Hope that makes sense xD
You explain that fairly well, perhaps make a video series to go along with the lessons? Such as the pronunciation of the words per lesson, just for the beginning. While there are many sources, I find that it would be best to hear it from all of you who created the course rather than others, so as to get a specific way of learning down.
In Afrikaans it's similar. Only there's only one word for je and jij. Jullie=Julle je/jij=jy U=U. U is always a capital letter. You would use it for addressing important people like kings instead of 'you' or 'your'. Of course if addressing, say, more than one king it stays julle/jullie.
Stressed means when that part of the sentence is more important than other parts:
Je moet de afwas doen (anders gaat het stinken): You have to do the dishes (otherwise it will start smelling)
Jij moet de afwas doen (en niet je broer): You have to do the dishes (and not your brother)
Because then you get ' Hun zijn aan het drinken' it's practically the same plural form but the words translate different. ' Jullie drinken' ' you (all) are drinking' ' they are drinking ' ' Hun zijn aan het drinken'. You all are drinking is more direct and is something you'd say to perhaps your brother and sister. But they are drinking is something you'd notice. Example 1: " Oh look they are drinking". Example 2: " you (all) are drinking now. " Example 2 is something you'd say to someone you know and example 1 is something you'd say when you notice it. Not something you would say to someone direct
Have a read through this topic: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/3734337
In short Je/Jij, Ze/Zij (both 3rd person singular She, and 3rd person plural They), and We/Wij (We), are interchangeable as the subject of the sentence. With the ij variant being marked/stressed and the e variant being unmarked/unstressed.
Because "drinkt" is the 'he' form. Hij drinkt. It's the stam. Always use it when learning Dutch here is an example. It works with all verbs. Ik drink hij drinkt stam + t wij drinken full verb plural. Ik drink is the verb singular hij drinkt is the verb to someone else and ads a t to the verb. He/she drinks - hij/zij drinkt. Always use the "stam" and if you're struggling with a verb and in what form to use it. Try this. Ik/I drink/drink Hij-zij/he-she drinkt/drinks Wij/we drinken/drink
It literally works like this with every verb.
Ik/I werk/work Hij-zij/he-she werkt/works Wij/we werken/work. Use it whenever you can't figure out how to put the verb in a sentence. Takes some time but it's the best way